Quintaria Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm.
Saprobic on submerged wood in freshwater or dead tip of prop root of Rhizophora mangle in terrestrial habitats. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered or loosely gregarious, immersed, with or without clypeus, uniloculate, subglobose to globose, conical with flattened bases or obpyriform, glabrous, dark brown to black, coriaceous or carbonaceous, with ostiolate papilla. Ostiole central or ecentric, circular, short, brown to black, periphysate. Clypeus when present composed of host cells, brown fungal hyphae and melanin particles. Peridium thin to medium, comprising several layers of brown pseudoparenchymatous angular cells mixing with host cells. Pseudoparaphyses numerous, trabeculate, hyaline, branched, anastomosing above the asci, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, with conspicuous or inconspicuous IKI negative apical structures, short pedicellate, persistent. Ascospores overlapping bi- to tri-seriate, ellipsoidal to cylindrical or fusiform, straight to slightly curved, hyaline, multiseptate, constricted at the septa, wall minutely verrucose or smooth, guttulate, with or without sheath (Hyde and Goh 1999; Cai et al. 2006). Asexual morph: Undetermined.
Type species: Quintaria lignatilis (Kohlm.) Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm.
Notes: Quintaria was initially described for a marine species, Q. lignatilis, which is characterized by immersed ascomata with fusoid, hyaline, multiseptate ascospores (Kohlmeyer and Volkmann-Kohlmeyer 1991). Quintaria is morphologically similar to Trematosphaeria but can be distinguished by completely immersed ascomata with black incrustations lining the sides of the ostiolar canal, and hyaline ascospores (Kohlmeyer and Volkmann-Kohlmeyer 1991; Zhang et al. 2012). Quintaria resembles the members of Lophiostomataceae in having cylindrical to clavate asci and fusiform, hyaline ascospores, but they are phylogenetically distant (Suetrong et al. 2009; Zhang et al. 2012).
The placement of Quintaria is unstable. Quintaria was referred to Lophiostomataceae (Cai et al. 2006; Jones et al. 2009), Pleosporales genera incertae sedis (Zhang et al. 2012) and Dothideomycetes genera incertae sedis (Wijayawardene et al. 2017; Hongsanan et al. 2020) in different papers. Two strains of Q. lignatilis, BCC 17444 and CBS 117700, clustered with Lophiostomataceae and Astrosphaeriellaceae, respectively (Zhou et al. 2013). However, two strains clustered together and close to Testudinaceae in Suetrong et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2012). We found that there are over 100 nucleotide differences in LSU sequence data between BCC 17444 and CBS 117700, which indicates that they are different generic species and even probably belong to different families. The morphology of BCC 17444 and CBS 117700 are unknown, so we cannot compare their morphology with the holotype specimen No. 4365a of Q. lignatilis examined by Zhang et al. (2012). Based on the unstable relationships of Quintaria, the difference of sequences of two strains, we place Quintaria in Dothideomycetes genera incertae sedis, following Wijayawardene et al. (2017), until the new collections of Q. lignatilis are obtained.
Two freshwater species Quintaria aquatica K.D. Hyde & Goh and Q. microspora Yin. Zhang et al. lack sequence data. Quintaria aquatica has larger ascospores than Q. microspora (42–52 × 11–14 μm vs. 26–31 × 5–5.5 μm) and possess a sheath (Hyde and Goh 1999; Zhang et al. 2008). Zhang et al. (2012) suspected that all freshwater species are likely to be excluded from this genus and only the generic type Q. lignatilis retained, but this needs confirmation. The freshwater species Q. submersa K.D. Hyde & Goh now is placed in Neolindgomyces Jayasiri et al. as N. submersus (K.D. Hyde & Goh) Jayasiri & K.D. Hyde based on molecular data (Jayasiri et al. 2019).
List of freshwater Quintaria species
Quintaria aquatica K.D. Hyde & Goh, Nova Hedwigia 68: 258 (1999)
Freshwater distribution: Australia (Hyde and Goh 1999)
Quintaria microspora Yin. Zhang, K.D. Hyde & J. Fourn., Cryptogamie Mycologie 29: 180 (2008)
Freshwater distribution: France (Zhang et al. 2008)
Key to freshwater Quintaria species
1. Ascospores without sheath............................... Q. microspora
1. Ascospores with sheath....................................... Q. aquatica
Cai L, Hyde KD, Tsui CKM (2006a) Genera of freshwater fungi. Fungal diversity research series, vol 18
Hongsanan S, Hyde KD, Phookamsak R, Wanasinghe DN, McKenzie EHC, Sarma V V., Boonmee S, Lücking R, Bhat DJ, Liu NG, Tennakoon DS, Pem D, Karunarathna A, Jiang SH, Jones EBG, Phillips AJL, Manawasinghe IS, Tibpromma S, Jayasiri SC, Sandamali DS, Jayawardena RS, Wijayawardene NN, Ekanayaka AH, Jeewon R, Lu YZ, Dissanayake AJ, Zeng XY, Luo ZL, Tian Q, Phukhamsakda C, Thambugala KM, Dai DQ, Chethana KWT, Samarakoon MC, Ertz D, Bao DF, Doilom M, Liu JK, Pérez-Ortega S, Suija A, Senwanna C, Wijesinghe SN, Konta S, Niranjan M, Zhang SN, Ariyawansa HA, Jiang HB, Zhang JF, Norphanphoun C, de Silva NI, Thiyagaraja V, Zhang H, Bezerra JDP, Miranda-González R, Aptroot A, Kashiwadani H, Harishchandra D, Sérusiaux E, Aluthmuhandiram JVS, Abeywickrama PD, Devadatha B, Wu HX, Moon KH, Gueidan C, Schumm F, Bundhun D, Mapook A, Monkai J, Chomnunti P, Suetrong S, Chaiwan N, Dayarathne MC, Yang J, Rathnayaka AR, Bhunjun CS, Xu JC, Zheng JS, Liu G, Feng Y, Xie N (2020) Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Mycosphere 11:1553–2107. https://doi.org/10.5943/MYCOSPHERE/11/1/13
Hyde KD, Goh TK (1999) Tropical Australian freshwater fungi. XVI. Some new melanommataceous fungi from woody substrata and a key to genera of lignicolous loculoascomycetes in freshwater. Nov Hedwigia 68:251–272. https://doi.org/10.1127/nova.hedwigia/68/1999/251
Jayasiri SC, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Jeewon R, Phillips AJL, Bhat JD, Wanasinghe DN, Liu JK, Lu YZ, Kang JC, Xu J, Karunarathna SC (2019) Diversity, morphology and molecular phylogeny of Dothideomycetes on decaying wild seed pods and fruits. Mycosphere 10:1–186. https://doi.org/10.5943/mycosphere/10/1/1
Jones EBJ, Sakayaroj J, Suetrong S, Somrithipol S, Pang LK (2009) Classification of marine ascomycota, anamorphic taxa and Basidiomycota. Fungal Divers 35:1–187
Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B (1991) Illustrated key to the filamentous higher marine fungi. Bot Mar 34:1–61. https://doi.org/10.1515/botm.19126.96.36.199
Suetrong S, Schoch CL, Spatafora JW, Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Sakayaroj J, Phongpaichit S, Tanaka K, Hirayama K, Jones EBG (2009) Molecular systematics of the marine Dothideomycetes. Stud Mycol 64:155–173S6. https://doi.org/10.3114/sim.2009.64.09
Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Rajeshkumar KC, Hawksworth DL, Madrid H, Kirk PM, Braun U, Singh R V., Crous PW, Kukwa M, Lücking R, Kurtzman CP, Yurkov A, Haelewaters D, Aptroot A, Thorsten Lumbsch H, Timdal E, Ertz D, Etayo J, Phillips AJL, Groenewald JZ, Papizadeh M, Selbmann L, Dayarathne MC, Weerakoon G, Gareth Jones EB, Suetrong S, Tian Q, Castañeda-Ruiz RF, Bahkali AH, Pang KL, Tanaka K, Dai DQ, Sakayaroj J, Hujslová M, Lombard L, Shenoy BD, Suija A, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Thambugala KM, Wanasinghe DN, Sharma BO, Gaikwad S, Pandit G, Zucconi L, Onofri S, Egidi E, Raja HA, Kodsueb R, Cáceres MES, Pérez-Ortega S, Fiuza PO, Monteiro JS, Vasilyeva LN, Shivas RG, Prieto M, Wedin M, Olariaga I, Lateef AA, Agrawal Y, Fazeli SAS, Amoozegar MA, Zhao GZ, Pfliegler WP, Sharma G, Oset M, Abdel-Wahab MA, Takamatsu S, Bensch K, De Silva NI, De Kesel A, Karunarathna A, Boonmee S, Pfister DH, Lu YZ, Luo ZL, Boonyuen N, Daranagama DA, Senanayake IC, Jayasiri SC, Samarakoon MC, Zeng XY, Doilom M, Quijada L, Rampadarath S, Heredia G, Dissanayake AJ, Jayawardana RS, Perera RH, Tang LZ, Phukhamsakda C, Hernández-Restrepo M, Ma X, Tibpromma S, Gusmao LFP, Weerahewa D, Karunarathna SC (2017) Notes for genera: Ascomycota. Fungal Divers 86:1–594. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-017-0386-0
Zhang Y, Crous PW, Schoch CL, Hyde KD (2012) Pleosporales. Fungal Divers 53:1–221. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-011-0117-x
Zhang Y, Fournier J, Jeewon R, Hyde KD (2008) Quintaria microsporum sp. nov., from a stream in France. Cryptogam Mycol 29:179–182
Zhou Y, Gong G, Zhang S, Liu N, Wang J, Li P, Yu X (2014) A new species of the genus Trematosphaeria from China. Mycol Prog 13:33–43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-013-0889-3