Gnomoniaceae G. Winter
Index Fungorum number: IF80810; Facesoffungi number: FoF06299; 485 species.
Saprobic on bark and leaves of overwintered plants. Sexual morph: Stromata lacking, or poorly to well-developed, scattered, erumpent, pustuliform with one or rarely two ascomata or valsoid, broadly elliptic to rounded, large. Ectostromata well-developed, brown to black, thick ectostromatic disc at perithecial necks. Ascomata immersed to erumpent, solitary or aggregated, globose to subglobose, black, coriaceous, thin-walled, with one or more long, central or eccentric necks with hyaline periphyses. Peridium comprising few layers of brown, thick-walled cells of textura angularis. Paraphyses few, hyaline, septate, cellular. Asci 8–32-spored, unitunicate, oval, fusiform to almost filiform, short pedicellate, with a distinct, J-, apical ring. Ascospores biseriate, overlapping uniseriate to fasciculate, hyaline, oval, fusiform, ovoid to subulate, small, unicellular to 1-septate, rarely multiseptate, ends mostly rounded, rarely pointed, appendages absent or subulate, navicular or whip-shaped, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous. Conidiomata acervuli or pycnidial, subcuticular, papillate or not, oblate to globose, black, thick-walled, with one chamber containing whitish conidial mass. Conidiophores simple, filiform to fusiform, annellations visible or invisible, densely branched. Conidiogenous cells usually phialidic, rarely with a few annellidic scars, irregular in shape, lageniform to cylindrical, gradually tapering to ends for one quarter to three quarters of their length, or abruptly narrowing to long neck at about half of the phialide length, or abruptly narrowing at apex, straight or curved, sometimes asymmetric swollen nodes, proliferating into other conidiogenous cells at basal or middle part. Conidia broadly ellipsoid to oval, sometimes obovoid, allantoid, occasionally curved or sinuate to slightly angular, hyaline, often unicellular (adapted from Senanayake et al. 2018).
Type genus: Gnomonia Ces. & De Not.
Notes: Gnomoniaceae was introduced to accommodate fungal species having upright perithecia with or without long or short neck and presence or absence of stromatic tissues (Winter 1886). Species in this family are pathogens or endophytes in leaves of herbaceous or woody trees (Rossman et al. 2007). Betulaceae, Fagaceae, and Salicaceae are the most common host families for the gnomoniaceous taxa (Mejia et al. 2011). Gnomoniaceae comprises 34 genera (Senanayake et al. 2018, Minoshima et al. 2018).
Genera included: Alnecium Voglmayr & Jaklitsch; Ambarignomonia Sogonov; Amphiporthe Petr. Anisomyces Theiss. & Syd.; Apiognomonia Höhn.; Apioplagiostoma M.E. Barr; Asteroma DC.; Bagcheea E. Müll. & R. Menon; Chadefaudiomyces Kamat; Clypeoporthe Höhn.; Cryptosporella Sacc.; Dictyoporthe Petr.; Diplacella Syd.; Ditopella De Not.; Ditopellopsis J. Reid & C. Booth; Gloeosporidina Petr.; Gnomonia Ces. & De Not.; Gnomoniella Sacc.; Gnomoniopsis Berl.; Maculatipalma J. Fröhlich & K.D. Hyde; Mamianiella Höhn.; Marsupiomyces Senan. & K.D. Hyde; Millerburtonia Cif.; Occultocarpon L.C. Mejía & Zhu L. Yang; Ophiognomonia (Sacc.) Sacc.; Phragmoporthe Petr.; Phylloporthe Syd.; Plagiostoma Fuckel; Pleuroceras Riess.; Sirococcus Preuss; Spataporthe Bronson et al.; Tenuignomonia Minosh. et al.; Uleoporthe Petr.; Uniseta Ciccar; Valsalnicola D.M. Walker & Rossman; Vismaya V.V. Sarma & K.D. Hyde.
Hyde KD, Norphanphoun C, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Bhat DJ et al. 2020 – Refined families of Sordariomycetes. Mycosphere 11(1): 305–1059.
Luo ZL, Hyde KD, Liu JK, Maharachchikumbura SSN et al. 2019 – Freshwater Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 99, 451–660.
Mejía LC, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Sogonov MV, White JF. 2011 – A systematic account of the genus Plagiostoma (Gnomoniaceae, Diaporthales) based on morphology, host associations, and a four-gene phylogeny. Studies in Mycology 68, 211–235.
Minoshima A, Walker DM, Takemoto S, Hosoya T et al. 2018 – Pathogenicity and taxonomy of Tenuignomonia styracis gen. et sp. nov., a new monotypic genus of Gnomoniaceae on Styrax obassia in Japan. Mycoscience 60, 31–39.
Rossman AY, Farr DF, Castlebury LA. 2007 – A review of the phylogeny and biology of the Diaporthales. Mycoscience 48, 135–144.
Winter G. 1886 – Fungi Australienses. Revue Mycologique Toulouse 8, 207–213.