Trichosphaeriaceae G. Winter
Index Fungorum number: IF81492; Facesoffungi number: FoF01809; 125 species
Saprobic and pathogenic on plants, commonly isolated from herbivore dung. Sexual morph:
Ascomata superficial, semi-immersed or immersed, ostiolate, globose to pyriform, dark brown to black, sometimes setose. Ostiole situated in a small papilla, with bristles. Setae absent or present; brown, septate, smooth when present. Peridium carbonaceous, coriaceous or membranaceous, brown to dark brown, comprising cells of textura angularis. Paraphyses simple or branched, septate, sometimes guttulate. Asci 4–8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, pedicellate, with rounded apex, sometimes curved, rounded above, most genera have a J-, apical ring. Ascospores uniseriate to biseriate, hyaline or brown, ellipsoidal to fusiform, aseptate or 1–3-sepate, sometimes guttulate. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous (Koorchaloma) or hyphomycetous (Brachysporium). When coelomycetous: Conidiomata sporodochioid to acervular, superficial, scattered to gregarious, gelatinous or not, bright coloured, setose. Conidiophores hyaline, branched, septate, often reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells phialidic, ampulliform to lageniform or clavate, hyaline. Conidia blastic-phialidic, fusiform to naviculate, aseptate, hyaline, bearing a mucoid, funnel-shaped appendage at only apex or both ends. When hyphomycetous: Colonies effuse, brown to dark brown, hairy. Mycelium mostly immersed. Conidiophores macronematous, mononematous, erect, straight or flexuous, cylindrical, unbranched, often swollen at the base, brown to dark brown. Conidiogenous cells polyblastic, terminal, proliferating sympodially, cylindrical, denticulate. Conidia usually pendulous, clavate, ellipsoidal, fusiform, limoniform, obovoid or pyriform, septate, brown, often with polar cells paler than middle cells (adapted from Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016b).
Type genus: Trichosphaeria Fuckel
Notes: Winter (1887) introduced Trichosphaeriaceae with Trichosphaeria as the type genus
and seven other astromatic genera. These seven genera were excluded from Trichosphaeriaceae by molecular evidence. In multi-gene phylogenetic analyses of LSU, SSU, tef1 and rpb2 sequence data by Maharachchikumbura et al. (2015), Trichosphaeriaceae had affinities with Papulosaceae and Thyridiaceae, but they maintained Trichosphaeriaceae as a separate family until further sequence data become available. However, due to lacking molecular recognition of T. pilosa, the use of Trichosphaeriales in phylogenetic studies was not recommended by Réblová & Gams (2016). Hongsanan et al. (2017) recognized Trichosphaeriaceae as family incertae sedis in Diaporthomycetidae based on phylogenetic and molecular clock evidence, and this treatment was followed by Wijayawardene et al. (2018). Certain species in this family are coprophilic, while other members are saprobic or pathogenic on plants, including Chrysopogon zizanioides, Arenga engleri and Ulmus minor (Hudson 1963, Yanna et al. 1998, Calatayud & Aguirre-Hudson 2001).
Barr (1990b) accepted four genera in Trichosphaeriaceae, i.e. Acanthostigma, Eriosphaeria, Rhamphoria, and Trichosphaeria. Acanthostigma was transferred to Tubeufiaceae (Réblová & Barr 2000, Boonmee et al. 2011, 2014), while Rhamphoria was placed in Annulatascaceae (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016b) and more recently Rhamphoriaceae. Collematospora was introduced by Jeng & Cain (1976) who assigned it to Trichosphaeriaceae based on the similar morphology with previously described genera, Eriosphaeria and Trichosphaeria in Trichosphaeriaceae. Réblová (1999b) introduced Coniobrevicolla and placed it in Trichosphaeriaceae based on the characters of peridium, ascal and hamathecium anatomy. Réblová & Seifert (2004b) found some sexual morphs which produced Brachysporium asexual morphs in culture. On the basis of morphology of perithecia, asci, ascospores and conidiogenesis, Brachysporium was placed in Trichosphaeriaceae. Pinnoi et al. (2003) described Unisetosphaeria in Trichosphaeriaceae rather than Chaetosphaeriaceae based on the morphology. Réblová & Gams (2016) studied the type material of Acanthosphaeria and relegated this genus to a synonymy of Chaetosphaeria. Voglmayr et al. (2019a) transferred all Cresporhaphis species including the type to Leptosillia (Leptosilliaceae) and Rhaphidicyrtis (Pyrenulales) except C. rhoina, and they did not give a clear classification for C. rhoina. Réblová et al. (2016b) recommended using the name Stromatographium rather than Fluviostroma because of its greater use and priority, and accepted Stromatographium in Sordariales. Trichosphaeriaceae is in need of further phylogenetic studies, including studies of types, and integration of DNA sequence data. (Adapted from Hyde et al. 2020)
Collematospora Jeng & Cain
Koorchaloma Subram. (= Kananascus Nag Raj)
Rizalia Syd. & P. Syd.
Setocampanula Sivan. & W.H. Hsieh
Unisetosphaeria Pinnoi, E.B.G. Jones, McKenzie & K.D. Hyde
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Boonmee S, Rossman AY, Liu JK, Li WJ. 2014 – Tubeufiales, ord. nov., integrating sexual and asexual generic names. Fungal Diversity 68, 239–298.
Calatayud V, Sanz MJ, Aptroot A. 2001 – Lichenopyrenis galligena (Pleomassariaceae), a new genus of gall-forming lichenicolous fungi on Leptochidium. Mycological Research 105, 634–637
Hongsanan S, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Samarakoon MC et al. 2017 – An updated phylogeny of Sordariomycetes based on phylogenetic and molecular clock evidence. Fungal Diversity 84, 25–41.
Hudson HJ. 1963 – The perfect state of Nigrospora oryzae. Transactions of the British Mycological Society 46, 355–360.
Hyde KD, Norphanphoun C, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Bhat DJ et al. 2020 – Refined families of Sordariomycetes. Mycosphere 11(1): 305–1059.
Jeng RS, Cain RF. 1976 – Collematospora, a new genus of the Trichosphaeriaceae. Canadian Journal of Botany 54, 2429–2433.
Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2015 – Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72, 199–301.
Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016b – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317.
Pinnoi A, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD. 2003 – Aquatic fungi from peat swamp palms: Unisetosphaeria penguinoides gen. et sp. nov., and three new Dactylaria species. Mycoscience 44, 377–382.
Réblová M, Barr ME. 2000 – The genus Acanthostigma (Tubeufiaceae, Pleosporales). Sydowia 52, 258–285.
Réblová M, Gams W. 2016 – A revision of Sphaeria pilosa Pers. and re-evaluation of the Trichosphaeriales. Mycological Progress 15, 52.
Reblová M, Miller AN, Rossman AY, Seifert KA et al. 2016b - Recommendations for competing sexual-asexually typified generic names in Sordariomycetes (except Diaporthales, Hypocreales, and Magnaporthales). IMA fungus 7, 131-153. Voglmayr et al. (2019a)
Réblová M, Seifert KA. 2004b – Cryptadelphia (Trichosphaeriales), a new genus for holomorphs with Brachysporium anamorphs, and clarification of the taxonomic status of Wallrothiella. Mycologia 96, 343–367.
Réblová M. 1999b – Studies in Chaetosphaeria sensu lato II. Coniobrevicolla gen. & sp. nov. Mycotaxon 70, 421–429.
Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Al-Ani LKT, Tedersoo L et al. (2020). Outline of Fungi and fungi-like taxa. Mycosphere 11(1).
Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Lumbsch HT, Liu JK et al. 2018a – Outline of Ascomycota: 2017. Fungal Diversity 88, 167–263.
Winter G. 1887 – Pilze, Ascomyceten. In: Rabenhorst’s Kryptogamen-Flora von Deutschland, Oesterreich und der Schweiz 1, 1–928.
Yanna, Hyde KD, Goh TK. 1998 – Koorchaloma novojournalis sp. nov., a new sporodochial fungus from Hong Kong. Fungal Diversity 1, 193–197.