Sexual morph: Ascomata partly immersed to superficial, solitary, globose to subglobose, conical around the ostiole, papillate, dark brown to black, glabrous. Peridium leathery to fragile, consisting of two regions; outer region of carbonaceous, dark brown, angular to rectangular cells; inner region of hyaline, thin-walled, elongated, compressed cells. Ostiolar canal periphysate. Paraphyses persistent, branched, hyaline, septate, irregular in width. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, cylindrical-clavate, with long, slender stipe, broadly rounded to truncate at the apex, with distinct refractive apical annulus. Ascospores biseriate, ellipsoidal to fusiform to oblong-lemon-shaped, at first aseptate, followed by formation of a median septum, hyaline, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Colonies effuse, brown, velvety. Mycelium mostly immersed, composed of branched, septate, subhyaline to brown hyphae. Conidiophores mononematous, macronematous, erect, straight or slightly flexuous, smooth, thick-walled, septate, unbranched, cylindrical, brown in the bottom, paler and tapering toward the apex. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, terminal, integrated, hyaline, denticulate, proliferating sympodially. Conidia acropleurogenous, septate, smooth, thick-walled, fusoid to limoniform, polar cells subhyaline, narrowing at the apex, median cells brown.
Type species: Brachysporium obovatum (Berk.) Sacc.
Brachysporium obovatum (Berk.) Sacc.: Helminthosporium obovatum Berk.
Brachysporium nigrum (Link) S. Hughes
Notes: The asexual morph genus Brachysporium was established by Saccardo in 1880. Reblová and Seifert (2004) introduced a new genus Cryptadelphia, with type species C. groenendalensis (Sacc., E. Bomm. & M. Rouss.) Reblová & Seifert to accommodate six sexual morphs of Brachysporium. Many Brachysporium species were reported saprobic on decaying wood of different substrates (Reblová and Seifert 2004; Markovskaja and Treigien 2007). Some species were also described from marine habitats, e.g. B. belgolandicum Schaumann and B. helgolandicum Schaumann. Among the accepted Brachysporium species, only two are known from freshwater habitats (Lamore and Goos 1978; Raja et al. 2009).
Lamore BJ, Goos RD (1978) Wood-inhabiting fungi of a freshwater stream in Rhode Island. Mycologia 70:1025–1034.
Markovskaja S, Treigien A (2007) A new and a rare species of Cryptadelphia and their Brachysporium anamorphs. Nova Hedwig 84:495–501.
Raja HA, Schmit JP, Shearer CA (2009) Latitudinal, habitat and substrate distribution patterns of freshwater ascomycetes in the Florida Peninsula. Biodivers Conserv 18:419–455.
Reblová M, Seifert KA (2004) Cryptadelphia (Trichosphaeriales), a new genus for holomorphs with Brachysporium anamorphs and clarification of the taxonomic status of Wallrothiella. Mycologia 96:343–367.
Recent SpeciesNeohelicomyces submersus