Astrosphaeriellaceae Phookamsak & K.D. Hyde, Fungal Divers 74: 161 (2015).

Index Fungorum number: IF 551632; Facesoffungi number: FoF 01221, 111 species.


Saprobic or parasitic on bamboo, palms, Quercus sp., or stout grasses. Sexual morph: Ascostromata dark opaque, solitary to gregarious, erumpent to superficial, conical or mammiform, with ruptured, reflexed, stellate, host remnants, around the base, uni-loculate, glabrous, brittle, carbonaceous, with minute apical ostiole. Peridium thick-walled, of unequal thickness, poorly developed at the base, composed of thick, opaque and melanized cells, with palisade-like cells at the rim. Hamathecium comprising dense, an anastomosing, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, embedded in a hyaline gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical to cylindric-clavate, pedicellate, apically rounded with an ocular chamber, or J- subapical ring. Ascospores overlapping 1–2-seriate, subfusoid to fusiform, obclavate to ellipsoidal, or lemoniform, hyaline to pale brown, or reddish brown, septate, constricted at the septum, smooth-walled, with or without appendages and mucilaginous sheath. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous or hyphomycetous (Pithomyces). Conidiomata pycnidial, scattered, solitary, superficial, conical to hemisphaerical, or globose, uni-to bi-loculate, indistinctly ostiolate. Pycnidial walls thin to thick-walled, composed of several layers of dark brown to black cells of textura angularis to textura intricata. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells. Conidiogenous cells mono or polyblastic or holoblastic, rhexolytic or phialidic, hyaline to pale brown, cylindrical or cylindric-clavate or ampulliform, septate or aseptate. Conidia globose to obovate, hyaline, aseptate to 3–5-spetate, smooth, verruculose, or spinulose. (Description from Hongsanan et al. 2020)


Type genus: Astrosphaeriella Syd. & P. Syd.


Notes: Phookamsak et al. (2015) established Astrosphaeriellaceae to accommodate Astrosphaeriella (Sydow & Sydow 1913) and Pteridiospora (Penzig & Saccardo 1897). Wanasinghe et al. (2018) placed Astrosphaeriellopsis in Astrosphaeriellaceae based on the well-supported phylogenetic results. Pithomyces is similar to some astrosphaeriella-like taxa. Several strains of Pithomyces containing the ex-type P. flavus form a well-supported monophyletic group within Astrosphaeriellaceae in Wanasinghe et al. (2018). Thus, Pithomyces was positioned in Astrosphaeriellaceae, and this opinion was followed by Wijayawardene et al. (2018). Javaria was treated as a synonym of Astrosphaeriella (Hyde & Fröhlich 1998), and there is no molecular data for this genus to confirm its phylogenetic position, so Javaria may still be a unique genus and it has been accepted into this family by Wijayawardene et al. (2018). Another two new genera Quercicola and Xenoastrosphaeriella were introduced into the family by Jayasiri et al. (2019). Liu et al. (2018) studied the phylogeny of Mycopepon Boise and suggested the genus should be a member of Astrosphaeriellaceae. Thus, there are eight genera included in Astrosphaeriellaceae viz. Astrosphaeriella, Astrosphaeriellopsis, Javaria, Mycopepon, Pithomyces, Pteridiospora, Quercicola and Xenoastrosphaeriella. Previously Astrosphaeriellaceae was recognized to have only coelomycetous asexual morphs, however, Wanasinghe et al. (2018) emended the asexual morph of this family and suggested that the family should accommodate both coelomycetous and hyphomycetous asexual morphs due to the hyphomycetous asexual morph of Pithomyces discovered. Caryosporaceae was introduced to accommodate Caryospora and Acrocordiopsis based on combined LSU, RPB2, SSU and TEF1 sequence data of Pleosporales (Ariyawansa et al. 2015). However, in the phylogenetic analysis of Hongsanan et al. (2020), Caryospora aquatica and Acrocordiopsis patilii are included in Astrosphaeriellaceae group. Further studies are needed to resolve this problem. (Notes from Hongsanan et al. 2020)



Ariyawansa HA, Hyde KD, Jayasiri SC, Buyck B, Chethana KWT, Dai DQ, Dai YC, Daranagama DA, Jayawardena RS, Lücking R, Ghobad-Nejhad M, Niskanen T, Thambugala KM, Voigt K, Zhao RL, Li GJ, Doilom M, Boonmee S, Yang ZL, Cai Q, Cui YY, Bahkali AH, Chen J, Cui BK, Chen JJ, Dayarathne MC, Dissanayake AJ, Ekanayaka AH, Hashimoto A, Hongsanan S, Jones EBG, Larsson E, Li WJ, Li QR, Liu JK, Luo ZL, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Mapook A, McKenzie EHC, Norphanphoun C, Konta S, Pang KL, Perera RH, Phookamsak R, Phukhamsakda C, Pinruan U, Randrianjohany E, Singtripop C, Tanaka K, Tian CM, Tibpromma S, Abdel-Wahab MA, Wanasinghe DN, Wijayawardene NN, Zhang JF, Zhang H, Abdel-Aziz FA, Wedin M, Westberg M, Ammirati JF, Bulgakov TS, Lima DX, Callaghan TM, Callac P, Chang CH, Coca LF, Dal-Forno M, Dollhofer V, Fliegerová K, Greiner K, Griffith GW, Ho HM, Hofstetter V, Jeewon R, Kang JC, Wen TC, Kirk PM, Kytövuori I, Lawrey JD, Xing J, Li H, Liu ZY, Liu XZ, Liimatainen K, Lumbsch HT, Matsumura M, Moncada B, Nuankaew S, Parnmen S, de Azevedo Santiago ALCM, Sommai S, Song Y, de Souza CAF, de Souza-Motta CM, Su HY, Suetrong S, Wang Y, Wei SF, Wen TC, Yuan HS, Zhou LW, Réblová M, Fournier J, Camporesi E, Luangsa-ard JJ, Tasanathai K, Khonsanit A, Thanakitpipattana D, Somrithipol S, Diederich P, Millanes AM, Common RS, Stadler M, Yan JY, Li XH, Lee HW, Nguyen TTT, Lee HB, Battistin E, Marsico O, Vizzini A, Vila J, Ercole E, Eberhardt U, Simonini G, Wen HA, Chen XH, Miettinen O, Spirin V, Hernawati (2015) Fungal diversity notes 111–252—taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Divers 75:27–274.

Hongsanan S, Hyde KD, Phookamsak R, Wanasinghe DN, McKenzie EHC, Sarma V V., Boonmee S, Lücking R, Bhat DJ, Liu NG, Tennakoon DS, Pem D, Karunarathna A, Jiang SH, Jones EBG, Phillips AJL, Manawasinghe IS, Tibpromma S, Jayasiri SC, Sandamali DS, Jayawardena RS, Wijayawardene NN, Ekanayaka AH, Jeewon R, Lu YZ, Dissanayake AJ, Zeng XY, Luo ZL, Tian Q, Phukhamsakda C, Thambugala KM, Dai DQ, Chethana KWT, Samarakoon MC, Ertz D, Bao DF, Doilom M, Liu JK, Pérez-Ortega S, Suija A, Senwanna C, Wijesinghe SN, Konta S, Niranjan M, Zhang SN, Ariyawansa HA, Jiang HB, Zhang JF, Norphanphoun C, de Silva NI, Thiyagaraja V, Zhang H, Bezerra JDP, Miranda-González R, Aptroot A, Kashiwadani H, Harishchandra D, Sérusiaux E, Aluthmuhandiram JVS, Abeywickrama PD, Devadatha B, Wu HX, Moon KH, Gueidan C, Schumm F, Bundhun D, Mapook A, Monkai J, Chomnunti P, Suetrong S, Chaiwan N, Dayarathne MC, Yang J, Rathnayaka AR, Bhunjun CS, Xu JC, Zheng JS, Liu G, Feng Y, Xie N (2020) Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Mycosphere 11:1553–2107.

Hyde KD, Fröhlich J (1998) Fungi from palms XXXVII. The genus Astrosphaeriella, including ten new species. Sydowia 50: 81–132.

Jayasiri SC, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Jeewon R, Phillips AJL, Bhat JD, Wanasinghe DN, Liu JK, Lu YZ, Kang JC, Xu J, Karunarathna SC (2019) Diversity, morphology and molecular phylogeny of Dothideomycetes on decaying wild seed pods and fruits. Mycosphere 10:1–186.

Liu LL, Long QD, Kang JC, Zhang X, Hyde KD, Shen XC, Li QR (2018) Morphology and phylogeny of Mycopepon. Mycosphere 9:779–789.

Penzig AJO, Saccardo PA (1897) Diagnoses fungorum novorum in insula Java collectorum. Ser. I. Malpighia 11: 387–409.

Phookamsak R, Norphanphoun C, Tanaka K, Dai DQ, Luo ZL, Liu JK, Su HY, Bhat DJ, Bahkali AH, Mortimer PE, Xu JC, Hyde KD (2015) Towards a natural classification of Astrosphaeriella-like species; introducing Astrosphaeriellaceae and Pseudoastrosphaeriellaceae fam. nov. and Astrosphaeriellopsis, gen. nov. Fungal Divers 74:143–197.

Sydow H, Sydow P (1913) Novae fungorum species X. Annales Mycologici 11: 254–271.

Wanasinghe DN, Jeewon R, Gareth Jones EB, Boonmee S, Kaewchai S, Manawasinghe IS, Lumyong S, Hyde KD (2018) Novel palmicolous taxa within Pleosporales: multigene phylogeny and taxonomic circumscription. Mycol Prog 17:571–590.

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Lumbsch HT, Liu JK, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Ekanayaka AH, Tian Q, Phookamsak R (2018) Outline of Ascomycota: 2017. Fungal Divers 88:167–263.


About Freshwater Fungi

The webpage Freshwater Fungi provides an up-to-date classification and account of all genera of freshwater fungi.


Published by the Mushroom Research Foundation 
Copyright © The copyright belongs to the Mushroom Research Foundation. All Rights Reserved.