Pleosporales » Astrosphaeriellaceae


Caryospora De Not., Micr. Ital. Novi 9: 7 (1855)


Saprobic on submerged wood, decaying fruit pericarp or old stone of Amygdalus persica. Sexual morph: Ascomata pseudothecioid, medium to large, scattered, erumpent to superficial, uniloculate, broadly conical or hemispherical, with flattened base, brown to black, carbonaceous, with ostiolate papilla. Ostiole relatively broad, central, circular. Peridium thicker at sides and thinner at base, strongly carbonized. Pseudoparaphyses numerous, trabeculate, filiform, hyaline, sparsely septate. Asci (2)8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, broadly cylindrical to clavate or obclavate, pedicellate. Ascospores large, bi- to tri- seriate, fusiform to broad-ellipsoid or biconic, straight, usually hyaline when young, becoming pigmented at maturity, septate, most symmetrical, smooth or rough, often with polar germ pores at each end, thin- to thick-walled, with or without sheath. Asexual morph: Undetermined.


Type species: Caryospora putaminum (Schwein.) Fuckel


Notes: Caryospora was placed in Caryosporaceae based on sequence data of C. aquatica and one putative strain of C. minima (Ariyawansa et al. 2015). Caryospora clustered with Acrocordiopsis with weak bootstrap support (Ariyawansa et al. 2015). Jayasiri et al. (2019) placed Caryospora in Astrosphaeriellaceae based on the similarity of carbonaceous ascostromata and trabeculate pseudoparaphyses with other genera in Astrosphaeriellaceae. However, Astrosphaeriellaceae members, including Caryospora, did not form a well-supported clade (Jayasiri et al. 2019; Dong et al. 2020). Zopfia rhizophila Rabenh. (Zopfiaceae) also clustered in Astrosphaeriellaceae, but with low bootstrap support (Jayasiri et al. 2019, Dong et al. 2020). In this study, we follow Jayasiri et al. (2019) and accept Caryospora in Astrosphaeriellaceae based on morphology.


Caryospora obclavata was reported from freshwater habitat and characterized by obclavate asci with ellipsoidal to biconic ascospores uniseriately arranged at the apex and base (Raja and Shearer 2008). The taxonomic placement of this species needs to be confirmed with molecular data. We introduce one new species C. submersa based on morphology and phylogeny. Additionally, C. aquatica and C. quercus are redescribed and reported as new geographical record in Thailand and new habitat record in freshwater, respectively.


List of freshwater Caryospora species

*Caryospora aquatica H. Zhang, K.D. Hyde & Ariyawansa, Fungal Diversity 75: 54 (2015)

Freshwater Distribution: China (Dong et al. 2020), Thailand (Ariyawansa et al. 2015)


*Caryospora minima Jeffers, Mycologia 32(4): 561 (1940)

Freshwater Distribution: China (Tsui et al. 2000; Luo et al. 2004), Philippines (Cai et al. 2003), South Africa (Hyde et al. 1998)


*Caryospora obclavata Raja & Shearer, Mycologia 100(3): 479 (2008)

Freshwater Distribution: USA (Raja and Shearer 2008)


*Caryospora quercus Jayasiri, E.B.G. Jones & K.D. Hyde, Mycosphere 10(1): 34 (2019)

Freshwater Distribution: Thailand (Dong et al. 2020)


*Caryospora submersa W. Dong, H. Zhang & K.D. Hyde

Freshwater Distribution: Thailand (Dong et al. 2020)


Key to freshwater Caryospora species

1.   Ascospores rough-walled.................. C. obclavate

1. Ascospores smooth-walled.................. 2

2. Ascospores thin-walled........................ C. submersa

2. Ascospores thick-walled...................... 3

3. Ascospores pale brown when mature... C. minima

3. Ascospores dark brown to black when mature.......................................... 4

4. Ascospores 35–48 × 18–28 μm............ C. aquática

4. Ascospores 47–60 × 19–33 μm............ C. quercus



Ariyawansa HA, Hyde KD, Jayasiri SC, Buyck B, Chethana KWT, Dai DQ, Dai YC, Daranagama DA, Jayawardena RS, Lücking R, Ghobad-Nejhad M, Niskanen T, Thambugala KM, Voigt K, Zhao RL, Li GJ, Doilom M, Boonmee S, Yang ZL, Cai Q, Cui YY, Bahkali AH, Chen J, Cui BK, Chen JJ, Dayarathne MC, Dissanayake AJ, Ekanayaka AH, Hashimoto A, Hongsanan S, Jones EBG, Larsson E, Li WJ, Li QR, Liu JK, Luo ZL, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Mapook A, McKenzie EHC, Norphanphoun C, Konta S, Pang KL, Perera RH, Phookamsak R, Phukhamsakda C, Pinruan U, Randrianjohany E, Singtripop C, Tanaka K, Tian CM, Tibpromma S, Abdel-Wahab MA, Wanasinghe DN, Wijayawardene NN, Zhang JF, Zhang H, Abdel-Aziz FA, Wedin M, Westberg M, Ammirati JF, Bulgakov TS, Lima DX, Callaghan TM, Callac P, Chang CH, Coca LF, Dal-Forno M, Dollhofer V, Fliegerová K, Greiner K, Griffith GW, Ho HM, Hofstetter V, Jeewon R, Kang JC, Wen TC, Kirk PM, Kytövuori I, Lawrey JD, Xing J, Li H, Liu ZY, Liu XZ, Liimatainen K, Lumbsch HT, Matsumura M, Moncada B, Nuankaew S, Parnmen S, de Azevedo Santiago ALCM, Sommai S, Song Y, de Souza CAF, de Souza-Motta CM, Su HY, Suetrong S, Wang Y, Wei SF, Wen TC, Yuan HS, Zhou LW, Réblová M, Fournier J, Camporesi E, Luangsa-ard JJ, Tasanathai K, Khonsanit A, Thanakitpipattana D, Somrithipol S, Diederich P, Millanes AM, Common RS, Stadler M, Yan JY, Li XH, Lee HW, Nguyen TTT, Lee HB, Battistin E, Marsico O, Vizzini A, Vila J, Ercole E, Eberhardt U, Simonini G, Wen HA, Chen XH, Miettinen O, Spirin V, Hernawati (2015) Fungal diversity notes 111–252—taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Divers 75:27–274.

Cai L, Zhang KQ, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD (2003) Freshwater fungi from bamboo and wood submerged in the Liput River in the Philippines. Fungal Divers 13:1–12

Dong W, Wang B, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Raja HA, Tanaka K, Abdel-Wahab MA, Abdel-Aziz FA, Doilom M, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Wanasinghe DN, Yu X-D, Wang G-N, Yang H, Yang J, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Luo Z-L, Yang J-B, Miller AN, Fournier J, Boonmee S, Hu D-M, Nalumpang S, Zhang H (2020) Freshwater Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 105:319–575

Hyde KD, Goh TK, Steinke TD (1998) Fungi on submerged wood in the Palmiet River, Durban, South Africa. S Afr J Bot 64:151–162

Jayasiri SC, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Jeewon R, Phillips AJL, Bhat JD, Wanasinghe DN, Liu JK, Lu YZ, Kang JC, Xu J, Karunarathna SC (2019) Diversity, morphology and molecular phylogeny of Dothideomycetes on decaying wild seed pods and fruits. Mycosphere 10:1–186.

Luo J, Yin J, Cai L, Zhang KQ, Hyde KD (2004) Freshwater fungi in Lake Dianchi, a heavily polluted lake in Yunnan, China. Fungal Divers 16:93–112

Raja HA, Shearer CA (2008) Freshwater ascomycetes: new and noteworthy species from aquatic habitats in Florida. Mycologia 100:467–489

Tsui KM, Hyde KD, Hodgkiss IJ (2000) Biodiversity of fungi on submerged wood in Hong Kong streams. Aquat Microb Ecol 21:289–298


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