Pithomyces flavus Berk. & Broome
Basionym: Sphaeria vesuvius Berk. & Broome, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 14(no. 74): 127 (1873) 
Synonymy: Astrosphaeriella vesuvius (Berk. & Broome) D. Hawksw. & Boise, Sydowia 38: 122 (1986) 
Description from Pratibha and Prabhugaonkar (2015) on dry leaf sheaths of Calamus thwaitesii:
Sexual morph: Colonies on substrate in the form of ascomata arising in groups of singles, black, erumpent with broken plant parts protruding from sides about 1 mm high, conical, beaked, often intermixed with anamorphic colonies which are effuse, cottony with thick yellow mat of aerial mycelium. Ascomata unilocular, conical with thick peridium. Trabeculae 1–2 μm often branched. Asci with ocular chamber, 8 spored, cylindrical pedicillate, 100–150 × 8–13 μm. Ascospores fusiform, light brown, 3-septate, constricted at middle septa, 35–45 × 4–6.5 μm. Asexual morph: Conidiophores mononematous, micronematous, mostly intercalary, sometimes deticulate, aseptate. Conidiogenous cells mono or polyblastic, rhexolytic, light brown, smooth, with upto 3.3 μm broad conidial attachment. Conidia solitary, dry, dark brown to black, obovate to oblong, veruculose to spinolose, with 3–5 mostly 4 longitudinal dark septa, 24–38 × 14–24 μm.
Culture characteristics: Colonies on MEA dark brown with yellow slightly verruculose mycelia, attaining a diameter of upto 4 cm in 10 days.
Freshwater distribution: China (Cai et al. 2002; Hu et al. 2013)
Photographic illustration: refer to Pratibha and Prabhugaonkar (2015)
Cai L, Tsui CKM, Zhang KQ, Hyde KD (2002a) Aquatic fungi from Lake Fuxian, Yunnan, China. Fungal Divers 9:57–70
Dong W, Wang B, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Raja HA, Tanaka K, Abdel-Wahab MA, Abdel-Aziz FA, Doilom M, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Wanasinghe DN, Yu X-D, Wang G-N, Yang H, Yang J, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Luo Z-L, Yang J-B, Miller AN, Fournier J, Boonmee S, Hu D-M, Nalumpang S, Zhang H (2020) Freshwater Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 105:319–575
Hu DM, Liu F, Cai L (2013) Biodiversity of aquatic fungi in China. Mycology 4:125–168
Pratibha J, Prabhugaonkar A (2015) Multi-gene phylogeny of Pithomyces with the sexual morph of P. flavus Berk. & Broome. Phytotaxa 218:84–90
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