Pleosporales » Astrosphaeriellaceae


Xenoastrosphaeriella Jayasiri, E.B.G. Jones & K.D. Hyde, Mycosphere 10(1): 36 (2019)


Saprobic on bamboo and palms in freshwater or terrestrial habitats. Sexual morph: Ascostromata dark opaque, gregarious, erumpent to superficial, mammiform to conical with ruptured, reflexed, stellate, host remnants around the base, uniloculate, glabrous, brittle, carbonaceous, central ostiolate, with pore-like opening. Peridium unequal thickness, poorly developed at the base, thick at the sides towards the apex, composed of thick, opaque and melanized cells. Pseudoparaphyses dense, trabeculate, hyaline, distinctly septate, anastomosing between the asci, embedded in a hyaline gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, cylindrical, short pedicellate, apically rounded with an ocular chamber. Ascospores overlapping uni- to bi-seriate, brown to reddish brown, with paler end cells, fusiform with acute ends, septate, smooth-walled (Hawksworth and Boise 1985; Phookamsak et al. 2015; Jayasiri et al. 2019). Asexual morph: Undetermined. (Description from Dong et al. 2020)


Type speciesXenoastrosphaeriella tornata (Cooke) Jayasiri & K.D. Hyde


NotesXenoastrosphaeriella was established by Jayasiri et al. (2019) to accommodate Astrosphaeriella tornata (Cooke) D. Hawksw. & Boise which formed a weakly supported clade with other genera in Astrosphaeriellaceae (Phookamsak et al. 2015; Dong et al. 2020). Xenoastrosphaeriella is distinct in the family in having paler end cells of ascospores (Hawksworth and Boise 1985; Phookamsak et al. 2015; Jayasiri et al. 2019). The second species Xenoastrosphaeriella trochus (D. Hawksw.) Phookamsak et al. was recently introduced based on morphology and phylogeny (Hongsanan et al. 2020). Both species X. tornata and X. trochus were ever collected from freshwater habitats (see list below), but not confirmed by molecular data.


List of freshwater Xenoastrosphaeriella species

*Xenoastrosphaeriella tornata (Cooke) Jayasiri & K.D. Hyde, Mycosphere 10(1): 36 (2019)

BasionymTrematosphaeria tornata Cooke, Grevillea 16(no. 79): 91 (1888)

SynonymySphaeria tornata Berk. & M.A. Curtis, J. Acad. nat. Sci. Philad., N.S. 2(6): 290 (1854)

Astrosphaeriella tornata (Cooke) D. Hawksw. & Boise, Sydowia 38: 119 (1986) [1985]

Freshwater distribution: Philippines (Cai et al. 2003)


*Xenoastrosphaeriella trochus (D. Hawksw.) Phookamsak, H.B. Jiang & K.D. Hyde, Mycosphere 11(1): 1762 (2020)

BasionymMelanomma trochus Penz. & Sacc., Malpighia 11(9–10): 401 (1897)

SynonymyLeptosphaeria trochus (Penz. & Sacc.) Höhn., Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Kl., Abt. 1 118: 328 [54 repr.] (1909)

Asterella trochus (Penz. & Sacc.) Hara, Nippon-gaikingaku: 187 (1936)

Asterotheca trochus (Penz. & Sacc.) I. Hino, Bull. Miyazaki Coll. Agric. Forest. 10: 57 (1938)

Trematosphaeria trochus (Penz. & Sacc.) Teng, Sinensia, Shanghai 9: 257 (1938)

Astrosphaeriella trochus (Penz. & Sacc.) D. Hawksw., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 82: 46 (1981)

Freshwater distribution: China (Tsui et al. 2000; Cai et al. 2002a, 2002b; Hu et al. 2013), Australia (Vijaykrishna and Hyde 2006), South Africa (Hyde and Frohlich 1998; Hyde et al. 1998)


Key to freshwater Xenoastrosphaeriella species

1. Ascospores 3-septate.................................................................... X. tornata

1. Ascospores mostly 5-septate........................................................ X. trochus



Cai L, Tsui CKM, Zhang KQ, Hyde KD (2002a) Aquatic fungi from Lake Fuxian, Yunnan, China. Fungal Divers 9:57–70

Cai L, Zhang KQ, McKenzie EHC, Ho WH, Hyde KD (2002b) Acrodictys liputii sp. nov. and Digitodesmium bambusicola sp. nov. from bamboo submerged in the Liput River in the Philippines. Nova Hedwigia 75:525–532

Cai L, Zhang KQ, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD (2003) Freshwater fungi from bamboo and wood submerged in the Liput River in the Philippines. Fungal Divers 13:1–12

Dong W, Wang B, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Raja HA, Tanaka K, Abdel-Wahab MA, Abdel-Aziz FA, Doilom M, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Wanasinghe DN, Yu X-D, Wang G-N, Yang H, Yang J, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Luo Z-L, Yang J-B, Miller AN, Fournier J, Boonmee S, Hu D-M, Nalumpang S, Zhang H (2020) Freshwater Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 105:319–575

Hawksworth DL, Boise JR (1985) Some additional species of Astrosphaeriella, with a key to the members of the genus. Sydowia 38:114–124

Hongsanan S, Hyde KD, Phookamsak R, Wanasinghe DN, McKenzie EHC, Sarma VV, Boonmee S, Lücking R, Pem D, Bhat DJ, Liu N, Tennakoon DS, Karunarathna A, Jiang SH, Jones EBG, Phillips AJL, Manawasinghe I, Tibpromma S, Jayasiri SC, Sandamali D, Jayawardena RS, Wijayawardene NN, Ekanayaka AH, Jeewon R, Lu YZ, Dissanayake AJ, Luo ZL, Tian Q, Phukhamsakda C, Thambugala KM, Dai DQ, Chethana TKW, Ertz D, Doilom M, Liu JK, Pérez-Ortega S, Suija A, Senwanna C, Wijesinghe SN, Konta S, Niranjan M, Zhang SN, Ariyawansa HA, Jiang HB, Zhang JF, de Silva NI, Thiyagaraja V, Zhang H, Bezerra JDP, Miranda-Gonzáles R, Aptroot A, Kashiwadani H, Harishchandra D, Aluthmuhandiram JVS, Abeywickrama PD, Bao DF, Devadatha B, Wu HX, Moon KH, Gueidan C, Schumm F, Bundhun D, Mapook A, Monkai J, Chomnunti P, Samarakoon MC, Suetrong S, Chaiwan N, Dayarathne MC, Jing Y, Rathnayaka AR, Bhunjun CS, Xu JC, Zheng JS, Liu G, Feng Y, Xie N (2020) Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Mycosphere 11:1553–2107

Hu DM, Liu F, Cai L (2013) Biodiversity of aquatic fungi in China. Mycology 4:125–168

Hyde KD, Frohlich J (1998) Fungi from palms XXXVII. the genus Astrosphaeriella, including ten new species. Sydowia 50:81–132

Hyde KD, Goh TK, Steinke TD (1998) Fungi on submerged wood in the Palmiet River, Durban, South Africa. S Afr J Bot 64:151–162

Jayasiri SC, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Jeewon R, Phillips AJL, Bhat DJ, Wanasinghe DN, Liu JK, Lu YZ, Kang JC, Xu JC, Karunarathna SC (2019) Diversity, morphology and molecular phylogeny of Dothideomycetes on decaying wild seed pods and fruits. Mycosphere 10:1–186

Phookamsak R, Norphanphoun C, Tanaka K, Dai DQ, Luo ZL, Liu JK, Su HY, Bhat DJ, Bahkali AH, Mortimer PE (2015) Towards a natural classification of Astrosphaeriella-like species; introducing Astrosphaeriellaceae and Pseudoastrosphaeriellaceae fam. nov. and Astrosphaeriellopsis, gen. nov. Fungal Divers 74:143–197

Tsui KM, Hyde KD, Hodgkiss IJ (2000) Biodiversity of fungi on submerged wood in Hong Kong streams. Aquat Microb Ecol 21:289–298

Vijaykrishna D, Hyde KD (2006) Inter- and intra-stream variation of lignicolous freshwater fungi in tropical Australia. Fungal Divers 21:203–224


About Freshwater Fungi

The webpage Freshwater Fungi provides an up-to-date classification and account of all genera of freshwater fungi.


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