Xenoastrosphaeriella tornata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Jayasiri & K.D. Hyde
Index fungorum number: IF555537; Facesoffungi number: FoF05238
≡ Sphaeria tornata Berk. & M.A. Curtis, Journal of the Linnean Society. Botany 10: 290 (1868)
= Astrosphaeriella tornata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) D. Hawksw. & Boise, Sydowia 38: 119 (1986)
= Trematosphaeria tornata Cooke, Grevillea 16: 91 (1888)
Reference specimen description from Phookamsak et al. (2015) on dead stem of bamboo:
Saprobic on bamboo and palms, visible as numerous, black, opaque, cone-like structures on the host surface. Sexual morph: Ascostromata 430–670 μm high, 650–810 μm diam., dark opaque, gregarious, erumpent to superficial, conical with ruptured, reflexed, stellate, host remnants around the base, uniloculate, glabrous, brittle, carbonaceous, ostiole central, with pore-like opening. Peridium 50–90 μm wide, of unequal thickness, poorly developed at the base, thick at the sides towards the apex, composed of thick, opaque and melanized cells. Hamathecium composed of dense, 1–2 μm wide, branching, rough-walled, distinctly septate, trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, anastomosing among the asci, embedded in a hyaline gelatinous matrix. Asci (120–)140–170(–178)(–190) × (11–)12–14(–15) μm (x̄ = 156.1 × 13.3 μm, n = 25), 8-spored, bitunicate, cylindrical, subsessile to short pedicellate, apically rounded with an ocular chamber. Ascospores (47.5–)48–52(–54) × 7–8(–9) μm (= 50.3 × 8.2 μm, n = 30), overlapping uni- to bi-seriate, brown to reddish brown, fusiform with acute ends, 3-septate, slightly constricted at the central septum, widest at the middle, smooth-walled. Asexual morph: Undetermined.
Culture characteristics: Colonies on PDA fast growing, reaching 70–75 mm diam. after 4 weeks at 25–30 °C, colonies circular, medium dense to dense, flat to raised, surface dull, rough, with edge erose, cotton to velvety, slightly radiating outwards; colony from above: dull green at the margin, greenish grey to white grey at the middle, dull green at the centre; from below dull green at the margin, blackish in the middle, dark green at the center; not producing pigmentation in agar.
Material examined: THAILAND, Chiang Rai Province, Muang District, Khun Korn waterfall, on dead stem of bamboo, 17 December 2010, R. Phookamsak, RP0112 (MFLU 11-0232, reference specimen designated here), living cultures, MFLUCC 11-0196, BCC.
Notes: The type specimen of Xenoastrosphaeriella tornata is in poor condition and Phookamsak et al. (2015) introduced a reference specimen for this species with molecular data (MFLUCC 11–0196). Xenoastrosphaeriella tornata is distinct from all other species in genus Astrosphaeriella and weakly supported to other genera in the family Astrosphaeriellaceae in multi-loci phylogenetic analysis (Phookamsak et al. 2015, Wanasinghe et al. 2018, Jayasiri et al. 2015). We introduce the new genus mainly based on Astrosphaeriella tornata (MFLUCC 11–0196) phylogeny. Xenoastrosphaeriella tornata is morphologically similar to Astrosphaeriella spp. and the only difference is the paler end cells of ascospores (Phookamsak et al. 2015). In the study of Jayasiri et al. (2015), Xenoastrosphaeriella tornata clusters with Acrocordiopsis patilii with low bootstrap support. Xenoastrosphaeriella tornata differs from Acrocordiopsis patilii in having reddish brown, fusiform, 3-septate ascospores with wide middle part (Borse & Hyde 1989). (Notes from Jayasiri et al. 2019)
Freshwater distribution: Philippines (Cai et al. 2003)
Borse BD, Hyde KD (1989) Marine fungi from India. III. Acrocordiopsis patilii gen. et sp. nov. from mangrove wood. Mycotaxon 34: 535–540
Cai L, Zhang KQ, McKenzie EHC, Hyde KD (2003) Freshwater fungi from bamboo and wood submerged in the Liput River in the Philippines. Fungal Divers 13:1–12
Jayasiri SC, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC, Jeewon R, Phillips AJL, Bhat DJ, Wanasinghe DN, Liu JK, Lu YZ, Kang JC, Xu JC, Karunarathna SC (2019) Diversity, morphology, and molecular phylogeny of Dothideomycetes on decaying wild seed pods and fruits. Mycosphere 10:1–186
Phookamsak R, Norphanphoun C, Tanaka K, Dai DQ, Luo ZL, Liu JK, Su HY, Bhat DJ, Bahkali AH, Mortimer PE (2015) Towards a natural classification of Astrosphaeriella-like species; introducing Astrosphaeriellaceae and Pseudoastrosphaeriellaceae fam. nov. and Astrosphaeriellopsis, gen. nov. Fungal Divers 74:143–197
Wanasinghe DN, Jeewon R, Gareth Jones EB, Boonmee S, Kaewchai S, Manawasinghe IS, Lumyong S, Hyde KD (2018) Novel palmicolous taxa within Pleosporales: multigene phylogeny and taxonomic circumscription. Mycol Prog 17:571–590. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11557-018-1379-4