Xenoastrosphaeriella trochus (D. Hawksw.) Phookamsak, H.B. Jiang, & K.D. Hyde
Basionym: Melanomma trochus Penz. & Sacc., Malpighia 11(9–10): 401 (1897)
Synonymy: Leptosphaeria trochus (Penz. & Sacc.) Höhn., Sber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-naturw. Kl., Abt. 1 118: 328 [54 repr.] (1909)
Asterella trochus (Penz. & Sacc.) Hara, Nippon-gaikingaku: 187 (1936)
Asterotheca trochus (Penz. & Sacc.) I. Hino, Bull. Miyazaki Coll. Agric. Forest. 10: 57 (1938)
Trematosphaeria trochus (Penz. & Sacc.) Teng, Sinensia, Shanghai 9: 257 (1938)
Astrosphaeriella trochus (Penz. & Sacc.) D. Hawksw., J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 82: 46 (1981)
Index Fungorum number: IF 111138; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08164.
Description from Hyde and Frohlich (1998) observed from submerged Phragmites:
Sexual morph: Ascomata arising singly, 2–3 rarely united at the base, erumpent when young, immersed only at the base, some with teeth-like flanges, brown or black, carbonaceous, in section (225–)600– 800(–1000) µm diam., (295–)500–800(–1000) µm high, conical, ostiolate. Asci 160–220 × 10–20 µm, 8-spored, cylindrical, short pedicellate, with an ocular chamber and ring. Ascospores (44)48–65(–72) × (5–)6-8(-9) µm, 2-seriate, elongate fusiform, sometimes tending to be arcuate, gradually tapering towards the apices, reddish-brown, sometimes with paler end cells, 3–5-septate, constricted at the septa, smooth-walled, with inconspicuous mucilage at the tips. Asexual morph: Undetermined.
Material examined: SOUTH AFRICA: Durban, Palmiet River, on submerged Phragmites, Nov. 1994, T. S. Steinke & K. D. Hyde (HKU(M) 2170).
Description from Hongsanan et al. (2020) on dead stem of Thysanolaena maxima:
Saprobic on Thysanolaena maxima (Poaceae), visible as black, opaque, cone-like, on the host surface. Sexual morph: Ascomata 570–810 μm high, 590–760 μm diam., carbonaceous, dark brown to black, opaque, solitary to gregarious, erumpent through the outer layers of the host tissue, becoming superficial, easily broken, conical to mammiform, with host cortex persisting as ruptured, reflexed, stellate, host remnants, around the base, uni-loculate, rarely bi-loculate, glabrous, ostiolate, with a minute papilla. Peridium 40–110 μm wide, of unequal thickness, poorly developed at the base, thicker at sides towards the apex, composed of small, dark opaque, melanized cells of textura prismatica or palisade-like. Hamathecium comprising dense, 0.5–1.5 μm wide, filiform, trabeculate, anastomosing at the apex, pseudoparaphyses, embedded in a hyaline gelatinous matrix. Asci (125–)160–190(–215) × 10–12(–14) μm (x̄ = 172.5 × 11.9 μm, n = 30), 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, subcylindrical to cylindric-clavate, short pedicellate, apically rounded, with well-developed ocular chamber. Ascospores (40–)45–55(–57) × 4.5–6 μm (x̄ = 48.2 × 5.6 μm, n = 30), overlapping 1–2-seriate, narrowly elongate fusiform with acute ends, brown to reddish brown, paler at the end cells, (3–)5-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, smooth-walled, with conspicuous mucilaginous sheath surrounded ascospores. Asexual morph: Undetermined.
Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, Xishuangbanna, Mengla County, Xishuangbanna tropical botanical garden, on dead stem of Thysanolaena maxima, 27 April 2017, R. Phookamsak, IS001 (KUN-HKAS 107533), living culture, KUMCC 18-0194.
Freshwater distribution: China (Tsui et al. 2000; Cai et al. 2002a, 2002b; Hu et al. 2013), Australia (Vijaykrishna and Hyde 2006), South Africa (Hyde and Frohlich 1998; Hyde et al. 1998)
Cai L, Tsui CKM, Zhang KQ, Hyde KD (2002a) Aquatic fungi from Lake Fuxian, Yunnan, China. Fungal Divers 9:57–70
Cai L, Zhang KQ, McKenzie EHC, Ho WH, Hyde KD (2002b) Acrodictys liputii sp. nov. and Digitodesmium bambusicola sp. nov. from bamboo submerged in the Liput River in the Philippines. Nova Hedwigia 75:525–532
Hongsanan S, Hyde KD, Phookamsak R, Wanasinghe DN, McKenzie EHC, Sarma VV, Boonmee S, Lücking R, Pem D, Bhat DJ, Liu N, Tennakoon DS, Karunarathna A, Jiang SH, Jones EBG, Phillips AJL, Manawasinghe I, Tibpromma S, Jayasiri SC, Sandamali D, Jayawardena RS, Wijayawardene NN, Ekanayaka AH, Jeewon R, Lu YZ, Dissanayake AJ, Luo ZL, Tian Q, Phukhamsakda C, Thambugala KM, Dai DQ, Chethana TKW, Ertz D, Doilom M, Liu JK, Pérez-Ortega S, Suija A, Senwanna C, Wijesinghe SN, Konta S, Niranjan M, Zhang SN, Ariyawansa HA, Jiang HB, Zhang JF, de Silva NI, Thiyagaraja V, Zhang H, Bezerra JDP, Miranda-Gonzáles R, Aptroot A, Kashiwadani H, Harishchandra D, Aluthmuhandiram JVS, Abeywickrama PD, Bao DF, Devadatha B, Wu HX, Moon KH, Gueidan C, Schumm F, Bundhun D, Mapook A, Monkai J, Chomnunti P, Samarakoon MC, Suetrong S, Chaiwan N, Dayarathne MC, Jing Y, Rathnayaka AR, Bhunjun CS, Xu JC, Zheng JS, Liu G, Feng Y, Xie N (2020) Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Mycosphere 11:1553–2107
Hu DM, Liu F, Cai L (2013) Biodiversity of aquatic fungi in China. Mycology 4:125–168
Hyde KD, Frohlich J (1998) Fungi from palms XXXVII. the genus Astrosphaeriella, including ten new species. Sydowia 50:81–132
Hyde KD, Goh TK, Steinke TD (1998) Fungi on submerged wood in the Palmiet River, Durban, South Africa. S Afr J Bot 64:151–162
Tsui KM, Hyde KD, Hodgkiss IJ (2000) Biodiversity of fungi on submerged wood in Hong Kong streams. Aquat Microb Ecol 21:289–298
Vijaykrishna D, Hyde KD (2006) Inter- and intra-stream variation of lignicolous freshwater fungi in tropical Australia. Fungal Divers 21:203–224