Dendryphiella vinosa (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Reisinger, Bull. trimest.
Basionym: Helminthosporium vinosum Berk. & M.A. Curtis [as ‘Helmisporium’], in Berkeley, J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 10(no. 46): 361 (1868) 
Synonymy: Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis N.G. Liu & K.D. Hyde, Mycosphere 9(2): 287 (2018)
Index Fungorum number: IF 329796
Saprobic on submerged wood. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Colonies on natural substrate superficial, effuse, greyish-brown to black. Mycelium partly immersed, partly superficial, composed of septate, pale brown, smooth hyphae. Conidiophores uneven in width, 160–300 × 4–6 µm (x̄ = 235 × 5 µm, n = 10), macronematous, mononematous, occasionally fasciculate, branched at upper part, slightly wider at nodes, 8–10 µm diam., septate, slightly constricted at the septa, brown to reddish brown, sometimes gradually paler and tapering at tip, smooth or delicately verruculose. Conidiogenous cells 35–40 × 3–5 µm (x̄ = 37 × 4 µm, n = 5), polytretic, terminal or intercalary, integrated, proliferating symmetrically or asymmetrically, smooth, subcylindrical, covered with 1–2 conidiogenous loci, brown to reddish brown. Conidia 23–34 × 5–8 µm (x̄ = 27 × 6.5 µm, n = 15), solitary, acrogenous or pleurogenous, oblong with obtuse ends, 3-septate, slightly constricted at the septa, brown to reddish brown, darker at the hilum, simple, dry, smooth or delicately verruculose, thin-walled. (Dong et al. 2020)
Culture characteristics: On PDA, colony circular, reaching 40 mm in 15 days at 25 °C, pale yellow-brown to white from above, yellow-brown from below, surface rough, with dense mycelium in the middle, sparse mycelium in outer layer, dry, raised, edge entire.
Material examined: THAILAND, Phayao Province, on submerged wood in a stream, 4 August 2017, G.N. Wang, G19 (MFLU 17-1666), ex-type living culture MFLUCC 17-2321.
Notes: Dendryphiella vinosa was initially collected from dead stems of Congo Bean in Cuba (Berkeley and Curtis 1869). Ellis (1971) redescribed and illustrated D. vinosa with reddish brown, verruculose conidiophores and 3-septate, verruculose, pale brown to reddish brown conidia. Dendryphiella vinosa only has LSU (EU848590) and ITS (DQ307316) sequence data in GenBank, which have been proved in following phylogenetic analyses (Crous et al. 2016, 2019; Liu et al. 2017; Hyde et al. 2018). Hyde et al. (2018) introduced a new species D. phitsanulokensis N.G. Liu & K.D. Hyde, which differs from D. vinosa in having shorter and unbranched conidiophores. However, they have identical LSU sequence data and there are only one nucleotide differences in ITS sequence data between D. phitsanulokensis (MFLUCC 17-2513) and D. vinosa (NBRC 32669). Further morphological comparison shows that D. phitsanulokensis has identical characters with D. vinosa in all structures (Ellis 1971; Hyde et al. 2018), and we consider that the conidiophore length and branch of D. vinosa can be variable in different living habitats. Based on single gene comparison, phylogenetic analysis and morphological comparison, we synonymize D. phitsanulokensis with D. vinosa. Our new collection MFLUCC 17-2321 clusters with D. vinosa in our multigene phylogenetic analysis . They have identical LSU sequence data and there are only one nucleotide differences in ITS sequence data between MFLUCC 17-2321 and D. vinosa MFLUCC 17-2513. Our collection MFLUCC 17-2321 is very similar to D. vinosa MFLUCC 17-2513 in all morphological characters and they have overlapping size of conidiophores (160–300 µm long vs. 130–260 µm long) and conidia (23–34 × 5–8 µm vs. 16–26 × 2.5–4.4 µm) (Hyde et al. 2018). We observed branched conidiophores in our collection, which are present in Ellis (1971) but absent in Hyde et al. (2018). We identify MFLUCC 17-2321 as D. vinosa based on phylogenetic analysis and their very similar morphology. This is a new habitat record of D. vinosa from freshwater in Thailand. (Notes from Dong et al. 2020)
Freshwater distribution: Thailand (Dong et al. 2020)
Dong, W., Wang, B., Hyde, K.D., McKenzie et al. (2020) Freshwater Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity
Berkeley MJ, Curtis MA (1869) Fungi Cubenses (Hymenomycetes). Bot J Linn Soc 10:280–392
Ellis MB (1971) Dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Surrey, England
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