Vikalpa M.J. D’souza, Boonmee, Bhat & K.D. Hyde, Fungal Diversity 80: 479 (2016)
Saprobic on submerged wood in freshwater and decaying wood, leaves in terrestrial habitats. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Conidiomata sporodochial, punctiform or effuse, scattered to gregarious, superficial, pale brown to dark brown, with or without a mucilage, inconspicuous covering. Mycelium immersed, composed of branched, septate, subhyaline to pale brown, smooth-walled hyphae. Conidiophores micronematous, aseptate, hyaline to pale brown. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, integrated, terminal, determinate, cylindrical to doliiform. Conidia acrogenous, solitary, dry, cheiroid, pale brown, smooth-walled, euseptate or distoseptate, consisting of three rows of cells arised parallel on a truncate basal cell, closely compacted, non-complanate, with or without appendages (Boonmee et al. 2016).
Type species: Vikalpa australiensis (B. Sutton) M.J. D’souza, Boonmee & K.D. Hyde
Notes: Vikalpa was introduced for one new species and three new combinations transferred from Dictyosporium (Boonmee et al. 2016). Vikalpa has non-complanate conidia consisting of three rows of cells arising parallel on a truncate basal cell, while Dictyosporium has complanate conidia with several unparallel rows of cells (Boonmee et al. 2016). The placement of Vikalpa was unstable, as it clustered basal to Dictyosporium in Boonmee et al. (2016), but distant from Dictyosporium (Yang et al. 2018). The freshwater species V. lignicola M.J. D’souza et al. was introduced based on its 3 rows and non-complanate conidia, but without molecular evidence (Boonmee et al. 2016).
List of freshwater Vikalpa species
Vikalpa lignicola M.J. D’souza, Bhat, Hong Y. Su & K.D. Hyde, Fungal Diversity 80: 479 (2016)
Dong W, Wang B, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Raja HA, Tanaka K, Abdel-Wahab MA, Abdel-Aziz FA, Doilom M, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Wanasinghe DN, Yu X-D, Wang G-N, Yang H, Yang J, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Luo Z-L, Yang J-B, Miller AN, Fournier J, Boonmee S, Hu D-M, Nalumpang S, Zhang H (2020) Freshwater Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 105:319–575
Boonmee, S., D’souza, M.J., Luo, Z. et al. Dictyosporiaceae fam. nov. Fungal Diversity 80, 457–482 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13225-016-0363-z
Yang J, Liu JK, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Liu ZY (2018) New species in Dictyosporium, new combinations in Dictyocheirospora and an updated backbone tree for Dictyosporiaceae. Mycokeys 36:83–105