Lophiostomataceae Sacc. [as 'Lophiostomaceae'], Syll. fung. (Abellini) 2: 672 (1883)

Index Fungorum number: IF 80966; Facesoffungi number: FoF 00796, 222 species.


Saprobic on twigs, stems or bark of various woody plants and herbaceous plants in terrestrial and aquatic environments. Colonies superficial or semi-immersed, dark-brown to black and carbonaceous. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered to gregarious, superficial or semi-immersed to densely erumpent, globose to subglobose, dark-brown to black and carbonaceous. Ostiole slit-like, with a small to large, flat, crestlike apex, which is variable in shape and composed of pseudoparenchymatous cells. Peridium thick at the sides, broad at the apex and thinner at the base, one-layered, composed of small, lightly pigmented, thin-walled cells of textura prismatica. Hamathecium comprising septate, long, hyaline, anastomosing and branched, cellular pseudoparaphyses, embedded in gel matrix between and above the asci. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical to clavate, with furcate pedicel, rounded at the apex with minute ocular chamber. Ascospores 1-seriate or partially 2-seriate, narrowly fusiform with acute ends, hyaline to pale brown, 3–5-septate, slightly constricted at each septum, or muriform, with a distinct oil drop in each cell, smooth-walled, with terminal appendages. Asexual morph: Mycelium septate, smooth to roughened, or verrucose, yellowish-brown, to reddish brown. Pycnidia scattered or semi-immersed, uni-loculate or rarely bi-loculate, subglobose, reddish brown, comprising dark reddish-brown cells. Ostiole circular, surrounded by a thick-walled, well-developed neck, surrounded by flexuous hyphae and an ostiolar canal filled with a tissue of hyaline cells. Conidiophores reduced to conidiogenous cells arising within the acervuli, cylindrical, septate and branched at the base, hyaline. Conidiogenous cells cylindrical, phialidic, formed at the end and on the sides, hyaline, smooth. Conidia subglobose or cylindrical, hyaline, aseptate. (Descriptions from Hongsanan et al. 2020)


Type genus: Lophiostoma  Ces. & De Not.


Notes: Lophiostomataceae was introduced by Nitschke (1869) with Lophiostoma, as the type genus. This family has been referred to different orders by various authors (Luttrell 1973, von Arx & Müller 1975, Barr 1987, 1992, Holm & Holm 1988, Kirk et al. 2008, Zhang et al. 2012b). Lophiostomataceae are mostly characterized by slot-like ostiole on the top of a flattened neck which mainly occur on twigs, stems or bark (Holm & Holm 1988, Thambugala et al. 2015). Thambugala et al. (2015) accepted 16 genera, while Wijayawardene et al. (2018) accepted 18 genera in Lophiostomataceae. Hashimoto et al. (2018) introduced seven new genera in Lophiostomataceae. Crous et al. (2019) and Mapook et al. (2020), also introduced two genera in Lophiostomataceae. We accept 28 genera in this family. (Notes from Hongsanan et al. 2020)



Barr ME (1987) New taxa and combinations in the Loculoascomycetes. Mycotaxon 29:501–505

Barr ME (1992) Notes on the Lophiostomataceae (Pleosporales). Mycotaxon 45:191–221

Crous PW, Carnegie AJ, Wingfield MJ, Sharma R et al. (2019) Fungal Planet description sheets: 868–950. Persoonia 42:291–473

Hashimoto A, Hirayama K, Takahashi H, Matsumura M et al. (2018) Resolving the Lophiostoma bipolare complex: Generic delimitations within Lophiostomataceae. Studies in Mycology 90, 161–189.

Holm L, Holm K (1988) Studies in the Lophiostomataceae with emphasis on the Swedish species. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis Symbolae Botanicae Upsalienses 28:1–50

Hongsanan S, Hyde KD, Phookamsak R, Wanasinghe DN, McKenzie EHC, Sarma V V., Boonmee S, Lücking R, Bhat DJ, Liu NG, Tennakoon DS, Pem D, Karunarathna A, Jiang SH, Jones EBG, Phillips AJL, Manawasinghe IS, Tibpromma S, Jayasiri SC, Sandamali DS, Jayawardena RS, Wijayawardene NN, Ekanayaka AH, Jeewon R, Lu YZ, Dissanayake AJ, Zeng XY, Luo ZL, Tian Q, Phukhamsakda C, Thambugala KM, Dai DQ, Chethana KWT, Samarakoon MC, Ertz D, Bao DF, Doilom M, Liu JK, Pérez-Ortega S, Suija A, Senwanna C, Wijesinghe SN, Konta S, Niranjan M, Zhang SN, Ariyawansa HA, Jiang HB, Zhang JF, Norphanphoun C, de Silva NI, Thiyagaraja V, Zhang H, Bezerra JDP, Miranda-González R, Aptroot A, Kashiwadani H, Harishchandra D, Sérusiaux E, Aluthmuhandiram JVS, Abeywickrama PD, Devadatha B, Wu HX, Moon KH, Gueidan C, Schumm F, Bundhun D, Mapook A, Monkai J, Chomnunti P, Suetrong S, Chaiwan N, Dayarathne MC, Yang J, Rathnayaka AR, Bhunjun CS, Xu JC, Zheng JS, Liu G, Feng Y, Xie N (2020) Refined families of Dothideomycetes: Dothideomycetidae and Pleosporomycetidae. Mycosphere 11:1553–2107

Kirk P, Cannon P, Minter D, Stalpers JA (2008) Dictionary of the Fungi. 10th edn. CAB International, Wallingford

Luttrell ES (1973) Loculoascomycetes. In: Ainsworth GC, Sparrow FK, Sussman AS (eds), The fungi. An advanced treatise, a taxonomic review with keys: ascomycetes and fungi imperfecti. Academic Press, New York, pp 135–219

Mapook A, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Gareth Jones EBG et al. (2020) Taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungi associated with the invasive weed Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed). Fungal Diversity 101:1–175

Nitschke TRJ (1869) Grundlage eines Systems der Pyrenomyceten. Verhandlungen des Naturhistorischen Vereins der Preussischen Rheinlande, Westfalens und des Regierungsbezirks Osnabrück 26:70–77

Thambugala KM, Hyde KD, Tanaka K, Tian Q et al. (2015) Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Lophiostomataceae, Floricolaceae, and Amorosiaceae fam.nov. Fungal Diversity 74:199–266

von Arx JA, Müller E (1975) A re-evaluation of the bitunicate Ascomycetes with keys to families and genera. Studies in Mycology 9:1–159

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Lumbsch HT, Liu JK et al. (2018) Outline of Ascomycota: 2017. Fungal Diversity 88:167–263

Zhang Y, Crous PW, Schoch CL, Hyde KD (2012b) Pleosporales. Fungal Diversity 53:1–221


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