Index Fungorum number: IF 2934
Saprobic on woody and herbaceous substrates or submerged wood. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered to crowded, mostly immersed, rarely erumpent, uniloculate, globose, subglobose to ovoid, glabrous, dark brown to black, opening compressed, with a slit-like ostiole. Peridium composed of pale brown, small, thin-walled cells of textura angularis to textura globosa. Pseudoparaphyses numerous, cellular, hyaline, septate, occasionally anastomosing or branching. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindrical, sessile to minutely pedicellate, rounded at the apex, with an ocular chamber. Ascospores uni- to bi-seriate, fusiform to cylindrical, straight to slightly curved, hyaline to brown, septate, symmetrical, smooth, thin-walled (Hirayama and Tanaka 2011; Hyde et al. 2013). Asexual morph: probably pleurophomopsis-like (Leuchtmann 1985). (Description from Dong et al. 2020)
Type species: Lophiotrema nucula (Fr.) Sacc
Notes: Lophiotrema is distinguished from Lophiostoma by subglobose to globose ascomata, peridium composed thin-walled cells of textura angularis to textura globosa, cylindrical asci with a short pedicel, and hyaline to brown, septate ascospores (Hirayama and Tanaka 2011; Hyde et al. 2013). Hirayama and Tanaka (2011) mentioned that the ascal shape, including length of the ascal pedicel, was a reliable taxonomic indicator to separate these two genera (cylindrical, up to 15 µm long in Lophiotrema vs. clavate, mostly (10–)15–30 µm long in Lophiostoma). Based on multigene phylogenetic analysis, Lophiotrema was placed in Lophiotremataceae, which was distant from Lophiostomataceae (Hirayama and Tanaka 2011). Pleurophomopsis Petr. was linked to the asexual morph of Lophiotrema, which formed in culture of L. nucula (Leuchtmann 1985), but Hyde et al. (2013) considered that it was probably a spermatial state.
The freshwater species Lophiotrema rubi (Fuckel) Y. Zhang ter et al. is characterized by hemispherical to pyriform ascomata with black clypeus formed around the neck, broadly cylindrical asci with a hoof-shaped pedicel, and broadly fusiform, hyaline ascospores with bipolar appendages (Fallah and Shearer 2001). Lophiotrema rubi was transferred from Massarina rubi (CBS 691.95) based on multigene phylogenetic analysis (Zhang et al. 2009). Lophiotrema rubi is likely an immigrant to freshwater because most reports are from terrestrial habitats (Fallah and Shearer 2001).
Dong W, Wang B, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Raja HA, Tanaka K, Abdel-Wahab MA, Abdel-Aziz FA, Doilom M, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Wanasinghe DN, Yu X-D, Wang G-N, Yang H, Yang J, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Luo Z-L, Yang J-B, Miller AN, Fournier J, Boonmee S, Hu D-M, Nalumpang S, Zhang H (2020) Freshwater Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 105:319–575
Fallah PM, Shearer CA (2001) Freshwater ascomycetes: new or noteworthy species from north temperate lakes in Wisconsin. Mycologia 93:566–602
Hirayama K, Tanaka K (2011) Taxonomic revision of Lophiostoma and Lophiotrema based on reevaluation of morphological characters and molecular analyses. Mycoscience 52:401–412
Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Liu JK, Ariyawansa H, Boehm E, Boonmee S, Braun U, Chomnunti P, Crous PW, Dai DQ, Diederich P, Dissanayake A, Doilom M, Doveri F, Hongsanan S, Jayawardena R, Lawrey JD, Li YM, Liu YX, Lücking R, Monkai J, Muggia L, Nelsen MP, Pang KL, Phookamsak R, Senanayake I, Shearer CA, Suetrong S, Tanaka K, Thambugala KM, Wijayawardene NN, Wikee S, Wu HX, Zhang Y, Aguirre-Hudson B, Alias SA, Aptroot A, Bahkali AH, Bezerra JL, Bhat DJ, Camporesi E, Chukeatirote E, Gueidan C, Hawksworth DL, Hirayama K, Hoog SD, Kang JC, Knudsen K, Li WJ, Li XH, Liu ZY, Mapook A, McKenzie EHC, Miller AN, Mortimer PE, Phillips AJL, Raja HA, Scheuer CH, Schumm F, Taylor JE, Tian Q, Tibpromma S, Wanasinghe DN, Wang Y, Xu JC, Yan JY, Yacharoen S, Zhang M (2013) Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 63:1–313
Leuchtmann A (1985) Kulturversuche mit einigen Arten der Gattung Lophiostoma Ces. & de Not. Sydowia 38:158–170
Zhang Y, Schoch CL, Fournier J, Crous PW, De Gruyter J, Woudenberg JHC, Hirayama K, Tanaka K, Pointing SB, Spatafora JW, Hyde KD (2009) Multi-locus phylogeny of Pleosporales: a taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary re-evaluation. Stud Mycol 64:85–102
Recent SpeciesNeohelicomyces submersus