Massarinaceae Munk
Index Fungorum number: IF 80979; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06497, ca. 626 species.


Saprobic on wood or twigs of plants, hemibiotropic or pathogenic on leaves or living leaves in terrestrial habitats. Sexual morph: Ascomata sometime covered with pseudoclypeus, uniloculate or multiloculate, solitary, gregarious to clustered, immersed to semi-immersed, becoming erumpent, scattered, globose or subglobose, conical at base, papillate or epapillate, ostiolate. Peridium thin, comprising thin hyaline layers, outer layers fusing with the host substrate. Hamathecium comprising dense, filamentous, broad, septate, branching, hyaline cellular pseudoparaphyses, embedded in mucilage, without anastomosing. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, clavate to cylindrical, short pedicellate, apically rounded, with ocular chamber. Ascospores 2-seriate, partial overlapping, broad fusiform to oblong, hyaline to brown, 1- to multi-septate, constricted at the septa, with or without mucilaginous sheath. Asexual morph: Coelomycetous or hyphomycetous asexual morphs or spermatia characters produced in the culture condition. Conidiomata immersed to nearly superficial, depressed globose with a flattened base and cylindrical neck.  Ostiole sometimes papillate or with elongated neck. Conidiomata wall thin, comprising thin hyaline layers. Conidiogenous cells enteroblastic, hyaline. Conidia oblong to globose-ovoid, hyaline to brown, aseptate to multi-septate or dictyosporous, smooth-walled (Chethana et al. 2015, Tanaka et al. 2015, Wijayawardene et al. 2015); hyphomycetous asexual morph. Conidiophores synematous-like, solitary or in small groups, macronematous, mononematous, dark brown, guttulate, multi-septate. Conidiogenous cells in the uppers part of conidiophore, mono- to polytretic, with small pores at the apex. Conidia solitary or in short chains, obclavate, rostrate, pale brown, multi-septate, smooth-walled, with or without guttulate (Tanaka et al. 2015, Zhao et al. 2018); Spermatiogenous cells cylindrical, appearing phialidic. Spermatia globose to subglobose, hyaline, smooth-walled (Tanaka et al. 2015).


Type: Massarina Sacc., Syll. fung. (Abellini) 2: 153 (1883).


Notes: Massarinaceae was established to accommodate fungal taxa having clypeus tissue covering the ascomata. The family originally comprised of Keissleriella, Massarina, Metasphaeria, Pseudotrichia and Trichometasphaeria (Munk 1956). Molecular study has shown that several related genera in Massarinaceae can be classified to different families within the suborder Massarineae (Zhang et al. 2012b, Hyde et al. 2013, Tanaka et al. 2015, Phukhamsakda et al. 2017). The outline of Ascomycota 2017 included Longiostiolum in Massarinaceae, however, the phylogenetic analysis showed its distinct lineages (Li et al. 2016). Currently, eight genera are accepted in Massarinaceae based on both molecular and phylogenetic analyses viz. Byssothecium, Helminthosporium, Massarina, Pseudodidymosphaeria, Pseudosplanchnonema, Semifissispora, Stagonospora and Suttonomyces (Zhang et al. 2012b, AdamĨík et al. 2015, Chethana et al. 2015, Tanaka et al. 2015, Thambugala et al. 2015a, Wijayawardene et al. 2015, Crous et al. 2017a). Based on phylogenetic analyses, single strains of Neottiosporina paspali (strain CBS 331.37) clustered along with members of Stagonospora (Massarinaceae). Several studies suggested that the strain should be synonymized under Stagonospora. Molecular data of the type species, Neottiosporina apoda is required for the taxonomic confirmation (Sutton 1974, Quaedvlieg et al. 2013, Thambugala et al. 2015a, Wijayawardene et al. 2015, Crous et al. 2017a).


Key to freshwater genera of Massarinaceae (Dong et al. 2020)

1. Ascospores basically symmetric, unevenly coloured, brown in central two cells and paler in end cells at maturity...................................................................................... Byssothecium

1. Ascospores asymmetric, upper cell longer and larger than lower cell, evenly coloured, medium to dark brown at maturity........................................................... Helminthosporium



AdamĨík S, Cai L, Chakraborty D, Chen X-H et al. 2015 – Fungal biodiversity profiles 1–10. Cryptogamie Mycologie 36, 121–166.

Chethana KWT, Liu M, Ariyawansa HA, Konta S et al. 2015 – Splanchnonema-like species in Pleosporales: introducing Pseudosplanchnonema gen. nov. in Massarinaceae. Phytotaxa 231, 133–144.

Crous PW, Wingfield MJ, Burgess TI, Carnegie AJ et al. 2017a – Fungal Planet description sheets: 625–715. Persoonia 39, 270–467.

Dong W, Wang B, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Raja HA, Tanaka K, Abdel-Wahab MA, Abdel-Aziz FA, Doilom M, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Wanasinghe DN, Yu X-D, Wang G-N, Yang H, Yang J, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Luo Z-L, Yang J-B, Miller AN, Fournier J, Boonmee S, Hu D-M, Nalumpang S, Zhang H (2020) Freshwater Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 105:319–575

Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Liu J-K, Ariyawansa H et al. 2013 – Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Diversity 63, 1–313.

Li GJ, Hyde KD, Zhao RL, Hongsanan S et al. 2016a – Fungal diversity notes 253–366: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal taxa. Fungal Diversity 78:1–237

Munk A. 1956 – On Metasphaeria coccodes (Karst.) Sacc. (Massarinaceae n. fam.). Friesia. 5, 305.

Phukhamsakda C, Bhat DJ, Hongsanan S, Tibpromma S et al. 2017 – Magnicamarosporium diospyricola sp. nov. (Sulcatisporaceae) from Thailand. Mycosphere 8, 512–520.

Quaedvlieg W, Verkley GJM, Shin HD, Barreto RW et al. 2013 – Sizing up Septoria. Studies in Mycology 75, 307–390.

Sutton BC, Alcorn JL. 1974 – Neottiosporina. Australian Journal of Botany 22, 517–530.

Tanaka K, Hirayama K, Yonezawa H, Sato G et al. 2015 – Revision of the Massarineae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes). Studies in Mycology 82, 75–136.

Thambugala KM, Chunfang Y, Camporesi E, Bahkali AH et al. 2015a – Pseudodidymosphaeria gen. nov. in Massarinaceae. Phytotaxa 231, 271–282.

Wijayawardene NN, Hyde KD, Bhat DJ, Goonasekara ID et al. 2015 – Additions to Brown Spored Coelomycetous Taxa in Massarinae, Pleosporales: Introducing Phragmocamarosporium gen. nov. and Suttonomyces gen. nov. Cryptogamie Mycologie 36, 213–224.

Zhang Y, Crous PW, Schoch CL, Hyde KD. 2012b – Pleosporales. Fungal Diversity 53, 1–221.


About Freshwater Fungi

The webpage Freshwater Fungi provides an up-to-date classification and account of all genera of freshwater fungi.


Published by the Mushroom Research Foundation 
Copyright © The copyright belongs to the Mushroom Research Foundation. All Rights Reserved.