Pleosporales » Melanommataceae


Byssosphaeria Cooke

Index Fungorum number: IF 634636; Facesoffungi number: FoF 01027


Saprobic on woody angiosperms or submerged wood. Sexual morph: Ascomata solitary, scattered to gregarious, superficial, uniloculate, globose, subglobose or ovoid, with basal subiculum and covered by thick, branched hyphae, dark brown to black, coriaceous, central ostiolate, red or orange at pore, without papilla. Peridium two-layered, outer layer composed of irregular, thick-walled, brown to dark brown cells of textura epidermoidea, inner layer composed of small thin-walled, pale brown cells. Pseudoparaphyses dense, trabeculate, long, embedded in mucilage, anastomosing between and above asci. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindro-clavate to clavate, with short pedicel, apically rounded with an ocular chamber. Ascospores uni- to bi-seriate, fusiform, tapering at both ends, mostly straight, sometimes slightly curved, hyaline to pale brown, 1-septate, verrucose (Tian et al. 2015). Asexual morph: Coelomycetous. Pycnidia formed in culture. Conidiogenous cells phialidic, lining cavity. Conidia hyaline, ellipsoid or subglobose (Barr 1984).


Type species: Byssosphaeria keithii (Berk. & Broome) Cooke [as ‘keitii’]


Notes: Byssosphaeria is characterized by superficial ascomata with bright yellow, orange or red, flat apices around the ostiole, with thick, branched hyphae, and hyaline to pale brown ascospores (Tian et al. 2015). Byssosphaeria differs from Herpotrichia Fuckel in having superficial ascomata with red or orange at pore (Zhang et al. 2012; Tian et al. 2015). Byssosphaeria was shown to belong to Melanommataceae based on molecular data of some species (Zhang et al. 2012; Tian et al. 2015). Sequence data of the type species B. keithii are unavailable. The freshwater species B. schiedermayeriana (Fuckel) M.E. Barr was found from Seychelles, but not supported by molecular data. Three terrestrial strains of B. schiedermayeriana clustered in Melanommataceae with good bootstrap support (Liu et al. 2015; Tian et al. 2015). (Notes from Dong et al. 2020)

List of freshwater Byssosphaeria species

Byssosphaeria schiedermayriana (Fuckel) M.E. Barr, Mycotaxon 20(1): 34 (1984)

Basionym: Herpotrichia schiedermayriana Fuckel [as 'schiedermayeriana'], Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk. 27-28: 27 (1874) [1873-74]

Synonymy: Byssosphaeria keithii (Berk. & Broome) Cooke [as 'keitii'], Grevillea 7(no. 43): 84 (1879)

Herpotrichia keithii (Berk. & Broome) Sacc. [as 'keitii'], Syll. fung. (Abellini) 2: 212 (1883)

Herpotrichia schiedermayeriana var. caldariorum Henn., Hedwigia 34(Beibl.): (102) (1895)

Psilosphaeria keithii (Berk. & Broome) Cooke [as 'keitii'], Grevillea 16(no. 78): 51 (1887)

Sphaeria keithii Berk. & Broome, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., Ser. 4 17: 144 (1876)

Freshwater distribution: Seychelles (Hyde and Goh 1998b)



Barr ME (1984) Herpotrichia and its segregates. Mycotaxon 20:1–38

Dong W, Wang B, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Raja HA, Tanaka K, Abdel-Wahab MA, Abdel-Aziz FA, Doilom M, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Wanasinghe DN, Yu X-D, Wang G-N, Yang H, Yang J, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Luo Z-L, Yang J-B, Miller AN, Fournier J, Boonmee S, Hu D-M, Nalumpang S, Zhang H (2020) Freshwater Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 105:319–575

Hyde KD, Goh TK (1998) Fungi on submerged wood in the Riviere St Marie-Louis, The Seychelles. S Afr J Bot 64:330–336

Liu JK, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Ariyawansa HA, Bhat DJ, Boonmee S, Maharachchikumbura SSN, McKenzie EHC, Phookamsak R, Phukhamsakda C, Shenoy BD, Abdel-Wahab MA, Buyck B, Chen J, Chethana KWT, Singtripop C, Dai DQ, Dai YC, Daranagama DA, Dissanayake AJ, Doilom M, Dsouza MJ, Fan XL, Goonasekara ID, Hirayama K, Hongsanan S, Jayasiri SC, Jayawardena RS, Karunarathna SC, Li WJ, Mapook A, Norphanphoun C, Pang KL, Perera RH, Peršoh D, Pinruan U, Senanayake IC, Somrithipol S, Suetrong S, Tanaka K, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Tibpromma S, Udayanga D, Wijayawardene NN, Wanasinghe D, Wisitrassameewong K, Zeng XY, Abdel-Aziz FA, AdamĨík S, Bahkali AH, Boonyuen N, Bulgakov T, Callac P, Chomnunti P, Greiner K, Hashimoto A, Hofstetter V, Kang JC, Lewis J, Li XH, Liu XZ, Liu ZY, Matsumura M, Mortimer PE, Rambold G, Randrianjohany E, Sato G, Sri-Indrasutdhi V, Tian CM, Verbeken A, von Brackel W, Wang Y, Wen TC, Xu JC, Yan JY, Zhao RL, Camporesi E (2015) Fungal diversity notes 1–110: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal species. Fungal Divers 72:1–197

Tian Q, Liu JK, Hyde KD, Wanasinghe DN, Boonmee S, Jayasiri SC, Luo ZL, Taylor JE, Phillips AJL, Bhat DJ (2015) Phylogenetic relationships and morphological reappraisal of Melanommataceae (Pleosporales). Fungal Divers 74:267–324

Zhang Y, Crous PW, Schoch CL, Hyde KD (2012) Pleosporales. Fungal Divers 53:1–221


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