Pleosporales » Tetraplosphaeriaceae


Ernakulamia Subram.

Index Fungorum number: IF 28737; Facesoffungi number: FoF 06667


Saprobic on submerged wood in freshwater and rotten leaves, branches in terrestrial habitats. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Colonies effuse, dark brown to black. Mycelium superficial. Conidiophores semi-macronematous. Conidiogenous cells monotretic, integrated, determinate, terminal and intercalary, often clavate, globose or subglobose, smooth or verruculose, subhyaline to brown, cicatrized or non-cicatrized, with a well-defined pore in the middle of each dark scar. Conidia variable in shape but often obconical or pyriform, dark brown to blackish brown, muriform, often verrucose at the base where a pore is often seen, internally filled with a mass of hyaline, septate hyphae sometimes with swollen cells, appendiculate, with cylindrical, straight or flexuous, septate, brown, appendages (Ellis 1976; Delgado et al. 2018).


Type species: Ernakulamia cochinensis (Subram.) Subram.


Notes: Ernakulamia is characterized by monotretic conidiogenous cells (Ellis 1976) and confirmed based on the cultural method (Delgado et al. 2018). Ernakulamia was placed in Tetraplosphaeriaceae based on two specimens of E. cochinensis (PRC 3992 and IMI 114626) (Delgado et al. 2018). They found an internal hyphal structure in E. cochinensis which were also present in Polyplosphaeria Kaz. Tanaka & K. Hiray. and Quadricrura Kaz. Tanaka et al. (Tanaka et al. 2009; Delgado et al. 2018). Phylogeny also confirmed the placement of Ernakulamia in Tetraplosphaeriaceae (Delgado et al. 2018; Dong et al. 2020; Hyde et al. 2020). Ernakulamia cochinensis was reported from terrestrial habitats (Delgado et al. 2018), while our collection is from freshwater habitats.


List of freshwater Ernakulamia species

Ernakulamia cochinensis (Subram.) Subram., Kavaka 22/23: 67 (1996) [1994]

Freshwater distribution: Thailand (Dong et al. 2020)



Delgado G, Koukol O, Cáceres O, Piepenbring M (2017) The phylogenetic placement of Ernakulamia cochinensis within pleosporales (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Cryptogam Mycol 38:435–451.

Dong W, Wang B, Hyde KD, McKenzie EHC, Raja HA, Tanaka K, Abdel-Wahab MA, Abdel-Aziz FA, Doilom M, Phookamsak R, Hongsanan S, Wanasinghe DN, Yu X-D, Wang G-N, Yang H, Yang J, Thambugala KM, Tian Q, Luo Z-L, Yang J-B, Miller AN, Fournier J, Boonmee S, Hu D-M, Nalumpang S, Zhang H (2020) Freshwater Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 105:319–575.

Ellis MB (1976) More dematiaceous hyphomycetes. Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Surrey, England

Hyde KD, Dong Y, Phookamsak R, Jeewon R, Bhat DJ, Jones EBG, Liu N-G, Abeywickrama PD, Mapook A, Wei D, Perera RH, Manawasinghe IS, Pem D, Bundhun D, Karunarathna A, Ekanayaka AH, Bao D-F, Li J, Samarakoon MC, Chaiwan N, Lin C-G, Phutthacharoen K, Zhang S-N, Senanayake IC, Goonasekara ID, Thambugala KM, Phukhamsakda C, Tennakoon DS, Jiang H-B, Yang J, Zeng M, Huanraluek N, Liu J-K (Jack), Wijesinghe SN, Tian Q, Tibpromma S, Brahmanage RS, Boonmee S, Huang S-K, Thiyagaraja V, Lu Y-Z, Jayawardena RS, Dong W, Yang E-F, Singh SK, Singh SM, Rana S, Lad SS, Anand G, Devadatha B, Niranjan M, Sarma VV, Liimatainen K, Aguirre-Hudson B, Niskanen T, Overall A, Alvarenga RLM, Gibertoni TB, Pfliegler WP, Horváth E, Imre A, Alves AL, da Silva Santos AC, Tiago PV, Bulgakov TS, Wanasinghe DN, Bahkali AH, Doilom M, Elgorban AM, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Rajeshkumar KC, Haelewaters D, Mortimer PE, Zhao Q, Lumyong S, Xu J, Sheng J (2020) Fungal diversity notes 1151–1276: taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions on genera and species of fungal taxa. Fungal Divers 100:5–277.

Tanaka K, Hirayama K, Yonezawa H, Hatakeyama S, Harada Y, Sano T, Shirouzu T, Hosoya T (2009) Molecular taxonomy of bambusicolous fungi: Tetraplosphaeriaceae, a new pleosporalean family with Tetraploa-like anamorphs. Stud Mycol 64:175–209.


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