Pleosporales » Torulaceae

Dendryphion

Dendryphion Wallr.

Index Fungorum number: IF7952; Facesoffungi number: FoF01741

 

Saprobic on dead stems of herbaceous plants and decaying wood or submerged wood. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Colonies effuse, hairy or velvety, dark grey, olive, reddish brown or black. Mycelium immersed. Stroma when present immersed or partly superficial. Conidiophores macronematous, mononematous, usually branched at the apex forming a stipe and head; stipe straight or flexuous, usually stout, erect, brown to black, smooth or with the upper part verruculose; branches usually paler, smooth or verruculose. Conidiogenous cells monotretic or polytretic, sympodial, integrated or discrete, terminal and intercalary on branches, clavate, cylindrical or doliiform, cicatrized; scars usually large and dark. Conidia acropleurogenous, catenate or solitary, dry, cylindrical with rounded ends or obclavate, sometimes cheiroid, straight or somewhat curved, pale to mid brown or olivaceous brown, multi-septate, simple or branched, smooth or verrucose, thin-walled (Ellis 1971; Su et al. 2016).

 

Type species: Dendryphion comosum Wallr.

 

Notes: The hyphomycetous genus Dendryphion was placed in Torulaceae based on D. europaeum Crous & R.K. Schumach. (Crous et al. 2015). Dendryphion formed a sister clade to Neotorula Ariyaw. et al., but differs in having cylindrical or obclavate conidia without branched chains (Hyde et al. 2016; Su et al. 2016, 2018). Five Dendryphion species were confirmed in Torulaceae with molecular data, four of which were collected from freshwater habitats in China (see list below). They formed a well-supported monophyletic clade in Su et al. (2018). However, the sequence data of the type species D. comosum is lacking. All freshwater Dendryphion species have similar size of conidiophores and conidia, except D. nanum (Nees) S. Hughes which has the shortest conidiophores and longest conidia (Su et al. 2016, 2018). The length and width of conidiophores can distinguish the other three species. (Notes from Dong et al. 2020)

 

 

List of freshwater Dendryphion species

Dendryphion aquaticum H.Y. Su & K.D. Hyde, Fungal Diversity (2016)

Freshwater distribution: China (Su et al. 2016)

 

Dendryphion fluminicola Z.L. Luo, D.J. Bhat & K.D. Hyde, Mycol. Progr. 17(5): 533 (2018)

Freshwater distribution: China (Su et al. 2018)

 

Dendryphion nanum (Nees) S. Hughes, Can. J. Bot. 36: 761 (1958)

Basionym: Helminthosporium nanum Nees [as ‘Helmisporium’], Syst. Pilze (Würzburg): 67 (1816) [1816–17]

Freshwater distribution: China (Su et al. 2016)

 

Dendryphion submersum H.Y. Su & K.D. Hyde, Fungal Diversity (2016)

Freshwater distribution: China (Su et al. 2016)

 

Key to freshwater Dendryphion species

1. Conidiophores < 100 μm long......................................................... D. nanum

1. Conidiophores > 100 μm long...................................................................... 2

2. Conidiophores < 200 μm long.................................................... D. fluminicola

2. Conidiophores > 200 μm long...................................................................... 3

3. Conidiophores 7.5–11.5 μm wide................................................ D. aquaticum

3. Conidiophores 3.5–4.5 μm wide............................................... D. submersum