Pleosporales » Torulaceae » Torula

Torula aquatica

Torula aquatica Z.L. Luo, K.D. Hyde, X.J. Su & H.Y. Su

Index Fungorum number: IF 823174; Facesoffungi number: FoF 03766

Holotype: MFLU 17–1403

Etymology: Referring to aquatic habitat.


Saprobic on submerged decaying wood. Sexual morph: Undetermined. Asexual morph: Colonies effuse on the natural substrate, scattered, hairy, dark brown. Mycelium immersed to superficial, composed of subhyaline to pale brown, septate, branched hyphae. Conidiophores semi-macronematous mononematous, subcylindrical, erect, septate, smooth, straight, or slightly flexuous, dark brown to black. 8–15 μm long, 3–5 μm wide. Conidiogenous cells holoblastic, mono- to polyblastic, integrated, terminal, on conidiophores, terminal or intercalary in conidial chains, doliiform, pale brown, collapsing in above half when old. Conidia in branched chains, dry, acrogenous, cylindrical, medium to dark brown, pale brown or subhyaline at apex, 1–6-septate, deeply constricted at septa, verrucose, rounded at both ends, easily separating, 8.5–13.5 μm ( = 11 μm, SD = 2.5, n = 40) long, 4.5–5.5 μm (x̄ = 5 μm, SD = 0.5, n = 40) wide. (Descriptions from Su et al. 2018)


Material examined: CHINA, Yunnan Province, submerged decaying wood in Jinsha River, April 2015, Z.L. Luo, JSJ H 6–19–1 (MFLU 17–1403, holotype), ex-type living culture, MFLUCC 16–1115, KUMCC 15–0435; H.Y. Su, JSJ H 5–7–1, living culture, DLUCC 0699; submerged decaying wood in Lake Erhai, June 2015, X.Y. Liu, 1 EHL H 34–1 (MFLU 17–1404, paratype), living culture, DLUCC 0550.


Notes: Torula aquatica was collected from Jinsha River and Erhai Lake in Yunnan Province. Torula aquatica shares similar characters with T. gaodangensis in having macronematous or semi-macronematous, erect conidiophores, monoblastic conidiogenous cells, acrogenous, brown, cylindrical conidia constricted at septa (Hyde et al. 2017). However, T. aquatica differs from T. gaodangensis in having longer conidiophores (8–15 vs 1–1.9 (− 7.5) μm), and smaller conidia (8.5–13.5 × 4.5–5.5 vs 20–35 × 6–7.5 μm) without guttules. Combined ITS, LSU, RPB2, and TEF1α phylogenetic analyses also confirm them as distinct taxa. (Notes from Su et al. 2018)


Freshwater distribution: China (Su et al. 2018)


Fig. 4

Fig 1. Torula aquatica (MFLU 17–1403, holotype). a, b. Colonies on wood. c–e. Conidiophores with conidia. f–l. Conidia. m, n. Colonies on MEA from surface and reverse. Scale bars at c = 30 μm, d–g = 15 μm, h–l =10 μm (Su et al. 2018)



Hyde KD, Norphanphoun C, Abreu VP, Bazzicalupo A, Chethana KWT, Clericuzio M, Dayarathne MC, Dissanayake AJ, Ekanayaka AH, He MQ, Hongsanan S, Huang SK, Jayasiri SC, Jayawardena RS, Karunarathna A, Konta S, Kusan I, Lee H, Li J, Lin CG, Liu NG, Lu YZ, Luo ZL, Manawasinghe IS, Mapook A, Perera RH, Phookamsak R, Phukhamsakda C, Siedlecki I, Soares AM, Tennakoon DS, Tian Q, Tibpromma S, Wanasinghe DN, Xiao YP, Yang J, Zeng XY, Abdel-Aziz FA, Li WJ, Senanayake IC, Shang QJ, Daranagama DA, de Silva NI, Thambugala KM, Abdel-Wahab MA, Bahkali AH, Berbee ML, Boonmee S, Bhat DJ, Bulgakov TS, Buyck B, Camporesi E, Castaneda-Ruiz RF, Chomnunti P, Doilom M, Dovana F, Gibertoni TB, Jadan M, Jeewon R, Jones EBG, Kang JC, Karunarathna SC, Lim YW, Liu JK, Liu ZY, Plautz HL Jr, Lumyong S, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Matocec N, McKenzie EHC, Mesic A, Miller D, Pawlowska J, Pereira OL, Promputtha I, Romero AI, Ryvarden L, Su HY, Suetrong S, Tkalcec Z, Vizzini A, Wen TC, Wisitrassameewong K, Wrzosek M, Xu JC, Zhao Q, Zhao RL, Mortimer PE (2017) Fungal diversity notes 603–708: taxonomic and phylogenetic notes on genera and species. Fungal Divers 87:1–235

Su XJ, Luo ZL, Jeewon R, Bhat DJ, Bao DF, Li WL, Hao YE, Su HY, Hyde KD (2018) Morphology and multigene phylogeny reveal new genus and species of Torulaceae from freshwater habitats in northwestern Yunnan, China. Mycol Prog 17:531–545


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