Trematosphaeriaceae K.D. Hyde, Y. Zhang ter, Suetrong & E.B.G. Jones
Index Fungorum number: IF 543789; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08378, 103 species.
Saprobic on lignocellulosic material in mangroves and terrestrial habitats. Sexual morph: Ascomata solitary, scattered, or in groups, initially immersed, becoming erumpent, to semi-immersed, subglobose, black; apex with a short papilla. Peridium coriaceous, comprising heavily pigmented thick-walled cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising relatively wide pseudoparaphyses, embedded in mucilage, branching, and anastomosing between and above the asci. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindro-clavate, pedicellate, with an ocular chamber. Ascospores biseriate to uniseriate, fusiform, hyaline, or dark brown, trans-septate, and variously ornamented. Asexual morph: Unknown. (Description from Hyde et al. 2013)
Type genus: Trematosphaeria Fuckel, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk
Notes: Trematosphaeriaceae was introduced by Suetrong et al. (2011) to accommodate the genera Falciformispora, Halomassarina and Trematosphaeria. The main distinguishing characters of the family are medium-sized rounded ascomata with a papillate ostiole, a relatively wide, coriaceous peridium, cellular pseudoparaphyses and cylindro-clavate asci. The ascospores are two-celled or many celled, hyaline or brown. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from combined nuclear SSU and LSU rRNA and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1-alpha) and second largest subunit of RNA polymerase (RPB2) datasets show that these genera form a strongly supported cluster within the Pleosporales. Previous studies by Schoch et al. (2009a), Suetrong et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2009b) also referred to the Trematosphaeriaceae in their phylogenetic trees as a family to represent a well-supported clade. The family name however, was not formally introduced and Lumbsch and Huhndorf (2010) regarded it as nomen nudem. The Trematosphaeriaceae shares a phylogenetic relationship and common node with four families in the Pleosporales: Montagnulaceae, Massarinaceae, Lentitheciaceae, and Morosphaeriaceae (Suetrong et al. 2011), with many taxa based on Massarina and Lophiostoma species that do not group with the type species Massarina eburnea. The Trematosphaeriaceae clade comprises four strains of Halomassarina thalassiae (Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm.) Suetrong et al., a common species on mangrove wood, with two strains of Trematosphaeria pertusa (Pers.) Fuckel and as a sister group. Falciformispora lignatilis K.D. Hyde also groups within this clade with high support, and known from mangrove wood, freshwater and on the terrestrial oil palm. All three are type species of monotypic genera. The position of Asteromassarina pulchra is unresolved, grouping in the Trematosphaeriaceae (Schoch et al. 2009a, b; Zhang et al. 2009a), but also in the Morosphaeriaceae (Suetrong et al. 2009).
Asteromassaria pulchra (Harkn.) Shoemaker & P.M. LeClair has been included in the family in previous phylogenetic publications (Schoch et al. 2009a, b; Zhang et al. 2009b), however, since the type of the genus (A. macrospora (Desm.) Höhn.), was not included in their phylogenetic analysis the familial placement cannot be confirmed. Furthermore A. pulchra did not cluster in the Trematosphaeriaceae in the analysis by Suetrong et al. (2011), but formed a weakly supported clade with the Morosphaeriaceae and Trematosphaeriaceae as sister clades. Barr (1979) referred the genus Asteromassaria to the Pleomassariaceae based on morphological observations “host woody substrates, rather large ascomata with wide lateral walls, large ascospores and conidia, both often distoseptate”. The position of this species cannot be resolved until the type species is sequenced. (Notes from Hyde et al. 2013)
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Suetrong S, Hyde KD, Ahang Y, Bahkali AB, Jones EBG (2011) Trematosphaeriaceae fam. nov. (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Cryptogam Mycol 32:343–358
Suetrong S, Schoch CL, Spatafora JW, Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Sakayaroj J, Phongpaicht S, Tanaka K, Hairayama K, Jones EBG (2009) Molecular systematics of the marine Dothideomycetes. Stud Mycol 64:155–173
Zhang Y, Fournier J, Crous PW, Pointing SB, Hyde KD (2009a) Phylogenetic and morphological assessment of two new species of Amniculicola and their allies (Pleosporales). Persoonia 23:48–54
Zhang Y, Schoch CL, Fournier J, Crous PW, de Gruyter J, Woudenberg JHC, Hirayama K, Tanaka K, Pointing SB, Spatafora JW, Hyde KD (2009b) Multi–locus phylogeny of Pleosporales: a taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary re–evaluation. Stud Mycol 64:85–102