Trematosphaeriaceae K.D. Hyde, Y. Zhang ter, Suetrong & E.B.G. Jones

Index Fungorum number: IF 543789; Facesoffungi number: FoF 08378, 103 species.


Saprobic on lignocellulosic material in mangroves and terrestrial habitats. Sexual morph: Ascomata solitary, scattered, or in groups, initially immersed, becoming erumpent, to semi-immersed, subglobose, black; apex with a short papilla. Peridium coriaceous, comprising heavily pigmented thick-walled cells of textura angularis. Hamathecium comprising relatively wide pseudoparaphyses, embedded in mucilage, branching, and anastomosing between and above the asci. Asci 8-spored, bitunicate, fissitunicate, cylindro-clavate, pedicellate, with an ocular chamber. Ascospores biseriate to uniseriate, fusiform, hyaline, or dark brown, trans-septate, and variously ornamented. Asexual morph: Unknown. (Description from Hyde et al. 2013)


Type genus: Trematosphaeria Fuckel, Jb. nassau. Ver. Naturk


Notes: Trematosphaeriaceae was introduced by Suetrong et al. (2011) to accommodate the genera Falciformispora, Halomassarina and Trematosphaeria. The main distinguishing characters of the family are medium-sized rounded ascomata with a papillate ostiole, a relatively wide, coriaceous peridium, cellular pseudoparaphyses and cylindro-clavate asci. The ascospores are two-celled or many celled, hyaline or brown. Phylogenetic analysis inferred from combined nuclear SSU and LSU rRNA and translation elongation factor 1-alpha (TEF-1-alpha) and second largest subunit of RNA polymerase (RPB2) datasets show that these genera form a strongly supported cluster within the Pleosporales. Previous studies by Schoch et al. (2009a), Suetrong et al. (2009) and Zhang et al. (2009b) also referred to the Trematosphaeriaceae in their phylogenetic trees as a family to represent a well-supported clade. The family name however, was not formally introduced and Lumbsch and Huhndorf (2010) regarded it as nomen nudem. The Trematosphaeriaceae shares a phylogenetic relationship and common node with four families in the Pleosporales: Montagnulaceae, Massarinaceae, Lentitheciaceae, and Morosphaeriaceae (Suetrong et al. 2011), with many taxa based on Massarina and Lophiostoma species that do not group with the type species Massarina eburnea. The Trematosphaeriaceae clade comprises four strains of Halomassarina thalassiae (Kohlm. & Volkm.-Kohlm.) Suetrong et al., a common species on mangrove wood, with two strains of Trematosphaeria pertusa (Pers.) Fuckel and as a sister group. Falciformispora lignatilis K.D. Hyde also groups within this clade with high support, and known from mangrove wood, freshwater and on the terrestrial oil palm. All three are type species of monotypic genera. The position of Asteromassarina pulchra is unresolved, grouping in the Trematosphaeriaceae (Schoch et al. 2009a, b; Zhang et al. 2009a), but also in the Morosphaeriaceae (Suetrong et al. 2009).


Asteromassaria pulchra (Harkn.) Shoemaker & P.M. LeClair has been included in the family in previous phylogenetic publications (Schoch et al. 2009a, b; Zhang et al. 2009b), however, since the type of the genus (A. macrospora (Desm.) Höhn.), was not included in their phylogenetic analysis the familial placement cannot be confirmed. Furthermore A. pulchra did not cluster in the Trematosphaeriaceae in the analysis by Suetrong et al. (2011), but formed a weakly supported clade with the Morosphaeriaceae and Trematosphaeriaceae as sister clades. Barr (1979) referred the genus Asteromassaria to the Pleomassariaceae based on morphological observations “host woody substrates, rather large ascomata with wide lateral walls, large ascospores and conidia, both often distoseptate”. The position of this species cannot be resolved until the type species is sequenced. (Notes from Hyde et al. 2013)



Barr ME (1979) A classification of Loculoascomycetes. Mycologia 71:935–957

Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Liu JK, Ariyawansa H, Boehm E, Boonmee S, Braun U, Chomnunti P, Crous PW, Dai DQ, Diederich P, Dissanayake A, Doilom M, Doveri F, Hongsanan S, Jayawardena R, Lawrey JD, Li YM, Liu YX, Lücking R, Monkai J, Muggia L, Nelsen MP, Pang KL, Phookamsak R, Senanayake I, Shearer CA, Suetrong S, Tanaka K, Thambugala KM, Wijayawardene NN, Wikee S, Wu HX, Zhang Y, Aguirre-Hudson B, Alias SA, Aptroot A, Bahkali AH, Bezerra JL, Bhat DJ, Camporesi E, Chukeatirote E, Gueidan C, Hawksworth DL, Hirayama K, Hoog SD, Kang JC, Knudsen K, Li WJ, Li XH, Liu ZY, Mapook A, McKenzie EHC, Miller AN, Mortimer PE, Phillips AJL, Raja HA, Scheuer C, Schumm F, Taylor JE, Tian Q, Tibpromma S, Wanasinghe DN, Wang Y, Xu JC, Yan JY, Yacharoen S, Zhang M (2013) Families of Dothideomycetes. Fungal Divers 63:1–313

Lumbsch HT, Huhndorf SM (2010) Myconet Volume 14. Part one. Outline of Ascomycota (2009). Part Two. Notes on Ascomycete Systematics. Nos. 4751–5113. Fieldiana Life Earth Sci 1:1–64

Schoch CL, Crous PW, Groenewald JZ, Boehm EWA, Burgess TI, de Gruyter J, de Hoog GS, Dixon LJ, Grube M, Gueidan C, Harada Y, Hatakeyama S, Hirayama K, Hosoya T, Huhndorf SM, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, Kohlmeyer J, Kruys Å, Li YM, Lücking R, Lumbsch HT, Marvanová L, Mbatchou JS, McVay AH, Miller AN, Mugambi GK, Muggia L, Nelsen MP, Nelson P, Owensby CA, Phillips AJL, Phongpaichit S, Pointing SB, Pujade-Renaud V, Raja HA, Rivas Plata E, Robbertse B, Ruibal C, Sakayaroj J, Sano T, Selbmann L, Shearer CA, Shirouzu T, Slippers B, Suetrong S, Tanaka K, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Wingfield MJ, Wood AR, Woudenberg JHC, Yonezawa H, Zhang Y, Spatafora JW (2009a) A class–wide phylogenetic assessment of Dothideomycetes. Stud Mycol 64:1–15

Schoch CL, Sung GH, López-Giráldez F, Townsend JP, Miadlikowska J, Hofstetter V, Robbertse B, Matheny PB, Kauff F, Wang Z, Gueidan C, Andrie RM, Trippe K, Ciufetti LM, Wynns A, Fraker E, Hodkinson BP, Bonito G, Groenewald JZ, Arzanlou M, de Hoog GS, Crous PW, Hewitt D, Pfister DH, Peterson K, Gryzenhout M, Wingfield MJ, Aptroot A, Suh SO, Blackwell M, Hillis DM, Griffith GW, Castlebury LA, Rossman AY, Lumbsch HT, Lücking R, Büdel B, Rauhut A, Diederich P, Ertz D, Geiser DM, Hosaka K, Inderbitzin P, Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Mostert L, O’Donnell K, Sipman H, Rogers JD, Shoemaker RA, Sugiyama J, Summerbell RC, Untereiner W, Johnston PR, Stenroos S, Zuccaro A, Dyer PS, Crittenden PD, Cole MS, Hansen K, Trappe JM, Yahr R, Lutzoni F, Spatafora JW, Schoch CL et al (2009b) The Ascomycota tree of life: a phylum–wide phylogeny clarifies the origin and evolution of fundamental reproductive and ecological traits. Syst Biol 58:224–239

Suetrong S, Hyde KD, Ahang Y, Bahkali AB, Jones EBG (2011) Trematosphaeriaceae fam. nov. (Dothideomycetes, Ascomycota). Cryptogam Mycol 32:343–358

Suetrong S, Schoch CL, Spatafora JW, Kohlmeyer J, Volkmann-Kohlmeyer B, Sakayaroj J, Phongpaicht S, Tanaka K, Hairayama K, Jones EBG (2009) Molecular systematics of the marine Dothideomycetes. Stud Mycol 64:155–173

Zhang Y, Fournier J, Crous PW, Pointing SB, Hyde KD (2009a) Phylogenetic and morphological assessment of two new species of Amniculicola and their allies (Pleosporales). Persoonia 23:48–54

Zhang Y, Schoch CL, Fournier J, Crous PW, de Gruyter J, Woudenberg JHC, Hirayama K, Tanaka K, Pointing SB, Spatafora JW, Hyde KD (2009b) Multi–locus phylogeny of Pleosporales: a taxonomic, ecological and evolutionary re–evaluation. Stud Mycol 64:85–102


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