188 morphological species. Sexual morph: Ascomata scattered or solitary, immersed with neck erumpent through host surface, uniloculate, subglobose or ellipsoidal, glabrous, brown, coriaceous. Ostiole cylindrical, periphysate. Peridium three-layered, outer layer comprising several layers of dark brown to black, oblong and rounded cells, middle layer comprising 3–4 layers of pale brown to hyaline, compressed cells of textura prismatica, inner layer comprising 4–5 layers of hyaline, large cells of textura angularis or irregular cells. Paraphyses numerous, tapering, hypha-like, hyaline, septate, unbranched, persistent, embedded in a gelatinous matrix. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, long cylindrical, with a tapering pedicel, apically rounded, with a distinct, relatively small, refractive, wedge-shaped, J-, apical ring. Ascospores obliquely uni-seriate, fusiform, hyaline, 3-septate. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Colonies black, erumpent. Mycelium comprising hyaline to pale brown, branched, septate, thin-walled hyphae. Conidiophores solitary, or sometimes aggregated in groups, brown, cylindrical, straight or curved, erect or somewhat repent, septate, smooth-walled. Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, terminal, cylindrical, brown, prolife rating percurrently at apex. Conidia solitary, acrogenous, pale brown to brown, obclavate, or cylindrical with tapering ends, with hyaline apex and truncate base, euseptateor distoseptate, length determinate, truncate at the base, some with basal scar.
Notes: Sporidesmium is a large and heterogeneous genus. To date, 383 epithets are referred to the genus (Index Fungorum 2020). However, many previously described species were revised and transferred to over 30 genera (Iturriaga et al. 2008). Studies based on phylogenetic analysis have been carried out to further re-examine the classification of sporidesmium-like taxa, given that the generic delimitations based on morphology data appear to be questionable. Sporidesmium and morphologically similar genera are clearly not monophyletic, as they are distributed among different families and orders in Dothideomycetes and Sordariomycetes (Shenoy et al. 2006, Su et al. 2016b, Yang et al. 2017). Sporidesmium was an asexual genus until Zhang et al. (2017a) introduced a sexual morph species Sporidesmium thailandense which is collected from freshwater habitat in Thailand. In this entry, we introduce a new species Sporidesmium dulongense based on morphology and phylogeny. It was collected from a freshwater river in northwestern Yunnan Province, China
Type species: Sporidesmium atrum Link, Mag. Gesell. naturf. Freunde, Berlin 3(1-2): 41 (1809)
Sporidesmium aquaticivaginatum J. Yang & K.D. Hyde
Sporidesmium cangshanense Z.L. Luo & K.D. Hyde
Sporidesmium dulongense Luo et al.
Sporidesmium fluminicola H.Y. Su & K.D. Hyde
Sporidesmium gyrinomorphum Yang et al.
Sporidesmium lageniforme Luo et al.
Sporidesmium lignicola Luo et al.
Sporidesmium olivaceoconidium J. Yang & K.D. Hyde
Sporidesmium pyriformatum J. Yang & K.D. Hyde
Sporidesmium submersum H.Y. Su & K.D. Hyde
Sporidesmium thailandense Dong et al.
Sporidesmium tropicale M.B. Ellis
Hyde KD, Norphanphoun C, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Bhat DJ et al. (2020) Refined families of Sordariomycetes. Mycosphere 11, 305–1059
Luo ZL, Hyde KD, Liu JK, Maharachchikumbura SSN et al. (2019) Freshwater Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 99, 451–660
Zhang H, Dong W, Hyde KD, Maharachchikumbura SSN et al. (2017) Towards a natural classification of Annulatascaceae-like taxa: introducing Atractosporales ord. nov. and six new families. Fungal Diversity 85, 75–110.
Yang J, Liu JK, Hyde KD, Jones EBG et al. (2017) Two new species in Fuscosporellaceae from freshwater habitats in Thailand. Mycosphere 8, 1893–1903.
Su HY, Hyde KD, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Ariyawansa HA et al. (2016) The families Distoseptisporaceae fam. nov., Kirschsteiniotheliaceae, Sporormiaceae and Torulaceae, with new species from freshwater in Yunnan Province, China. Fungal Diversity 80, 375–409
Shenoy BD, Jeewon R, Wu WP, Bhat DJ, Hyde KD. (2006) Ribosomal and RPB2 DNA sequence analyses suggest that Sporidesmium and morphologically similar genera are polyphyletic. Mycological Research 110, 916–928
Iturriaga T, Hawksworth DL, Crane JL. (2008) Sporidesmium lichenicola sp. nov., a new lichenicolous fungus on Leptogium from Venezuela. Mycologia 100, 392–396.