Togniniales Senan., Maharachch. & K.D. Hyde


Togniniales comprises a single family Togniniaceae based on phylogenetic analyses and it is similar to some members of Calosphaeriaceae in having perithecial ascomata and clavate, tiny asci with hyaline ascogenous hyphae and cylindrical to allantoid ascospores (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015, Réblová et al. 2015). Togniniaceae was placed in Diaporthales based on SSU and LSU gene analyses (Mostert et al. 2006). However, multi-gene analyses showed that Togniniales as an independent clade with Diaporthales and Calosphaeriales (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015, 2016, Réblová et al. 2015, Huang et al. 2019). Species of this order have a worldwide distribution and are well-known pathogens of plants and animals (Rooney-Latham et al. 2005, Hoffmann & Voigt 2011, Kredics et al. 2011, Huang et al. 2018). The divergence time for Togniniales is estimated as 138 MYA. Currently there is one family and two genera in this order (Hyde et al. 2020).


Family: Togniniaceae Réblová et al.



Conidiotheca Réblová & L Mostert

Phaeoacremonium W. Gams et al.



Hoffmann K, Voigt K. 2011 Molecular detection of human fungal pathogens. CRC Press.

Huang SK, Hyde KD, Jeewon R, Jayarama BD et al. 2019 Sordariomycetidae and Diaporthomycetidae. Fungal diversity.

Huang SK, Jeewon R, Hyde KD, Bhat DJ et al. 2018 Beta-tubulin and Actin gene phylogeny supports Phaeoacremonium ovale as a new species from freshwater habitats in China. MycoKeys 41, 115.

Hyde KD, Norphanphoun C, Maharachchikumbura SSN, Bhat DJ et al. 2020 Refined families of Sordariomycetes. Mycosphere 11(1): 3051059.

Kredics L, Hatvani L, Manczinger L, Vágvölgyi C, Antal Z. 2011 Molecular detection of human fungal pathogens. CRC Press 1958.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2015 Towards a natural classification and backbone tree for Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 72, 199301.

Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016b Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1317.

Mostert L, Groenewald JZ, Summerbell RC, Gams W et al. 2006 Taxonomy and pathology of Togninia (Diaporthales) and its Phaeoacremonium anamorphs. Studies in Mycology 54, 1113.

Reblová M, Jaklitsch WM, Reblová K, Štepánek V. 2015b Phylogenetic reconstruction of the Calosphaeriales and Togniniales using five genes and predicted RNA secondary structures of ITS, and Flabellascus tenuirostris gen. et sp. nov. PloS one 10, e0144616.

Rooney-Latham S, Eskalen A, Gubler W. 2005 Occurrence of Togninia minima perithecia in esca-affected vineyards in California. Plant Disease 89, 867871.


About Freshwater Fungi

The webpage Freshwater Fungi provides an up-to-date classification and account of all genera of freshwater fungi.


Published by the Mushroom Research Foundation 
Copyright © The copyright belongs to the Mushroom Research Foundation. All Rights Reserved.