Togniniaceae Réblová, L. Mostert, W. Gams & Crous
Index Fungorum number: IF500154; Facesoffungi number: FoF01414; 64 species
Saprobic on dead wood or pathogenic on human and various woody plants, frequently associated with Petri and Esca disease of grapevines. Sexual morph: Ascomata perithecial, black, superficial to sub-immersed, astromatic, with 1–3 necks. globose to subglobose base, with straight or flexuous, periphysate ostiole. Peridium fragile to leathery, two-layered, the outer layer comprising thin-walled, brown cells of textura prismatica to textura angularis, the inner layer comprising non-pigmented flattened cells. Paraphyses abundant, hyaline, branching, septate, attenuate towards the apex, slightly constricted at septa. Ascogenous hyphae hyaline, elongate, branched, smooth-walled, sympodial, bearing remnant of base from which a single ascus is produced. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, clavate, with obtuse, sessile bases and thickened ascal apex without a discharge mechanism, aggregating in spicate arrangement. Ascospores 3–4-seriate, hyaline, aseptate, allantoid, oblong-ellipsoidal, slightly curved, with rounded ends. Asexual morph: Hyphomycetous. Mycelium mid-brown, dense, branched, septate, some species produce wart-like droplets. Conidiophores arising from bundled or single mycelium, branched at base or unbranched, septate, pale brown, paler towards the apex, with small warts or verruculose ornamentations at the base, percurrent rejuvenation. Conidiogenous cells usually monophialidic, integrated or discrete, hyaline to pale brown, with or without basal septum. Conidia hyaline, septate, smooth-walled, cylindrical, oblong-ellipsoidal or allantoid, straight or slightly curved, generally adhering in globose head at the tip of phialides (adapted from Réblová et al. 2004).
Type genus: Phaeoacremonium Berl.
Notes: Togninia was previously placed in the Calosphaeriales (Mostert et al. 2003). However, phylogenetic analysis based on a combined LSU and SSU dataset showed that Togninia spp. formed a distinct clade in Diaporthales, for which Togniniaceae was proposed (Réblová et al. 2004) and this was followed by later researchers (Gryzenhout et al. 2006, Damm et al. 2008, Réblová 2008). Subsequently, Togniniaceae was relocated to a new order Togniniales based on its phylogenetic and morphological distinctiveness in the class Sordariomycetes and this family was considered to include three genera Conidiotheca, Togninia and Phaeoacremonium (Maharachchikumbura et al. 2015). Gramaje et al. (2015) reduced Togninia under its asexual genus Phaeoacremonium and this was accepted by Dai et al. (2016) and Maharachchikumbura et al. (2016). To date, Togniniales comprised a single family Togniniaceae, but Conidiotheca was treated as a member of Calosphaeriaceae, order Calosphaeriales (Wijayawardene et al. 2018).
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