Phaeoacremonium Gams et al.
Sexual morph: Ascomata aggregated or solitary, superficial to immersed, nonstromatic, globose to subglobose, dark, opaque, longnecked. Paraphyses abundant, broadly cellular, slightly constricted at the septa, branching, hyaline, slightly tapering apically or thread-like towards the apex. Asci 8-spored, unitunicate, arising in acropetal succession, appearing spicate when mature, ascal apex thickened without a discharge mechanism, basally bluntly obtuse, sessile. Ascospores mostly biseriate or in a single row, allantoid, reniform, cylindrical or oblong-ellipsoidal, aseptate, hyaline. Asexual morph: Mycelium consisting of branched, septate hyphae, single or bundled. Conidiophores branched in the basal region or unbranched, arising from aerial or submerged hyphae, erect, nearly cylindrical when unbranched, slightly tapering, straight or flexuous, variable in length, up to 7-septate, mostly pale brown, paler towards the tip. Conidiogenous cells mostly monophialidic, discrete or integrated, terminal or intercalary, sometimes polyphialidic, sparsely warted, pale brown to hyaline, verruculose or smooth. Conidia aggregated into round, slimy heads at the apices of phialides, aseptate, hyaline, smooth-walled; oblong-ellipsoidal to obovate, cylindrical, allantoid or reniform, uncommonly fusiform-ellipsoidal or globose, becoming guttulate with age.
Type species: Phaeoacremonium parasiticum (Ajello, Georg & C.J.K. Wang) Gams et al.
Notes: Phaeoacremonium has recently been monographed, and comprises 46 species (Gramaje et al. 2015; Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016). Phaeoacremonium species are saprobic on plants, or pathogenic on human and animals or soil fungi (Mostert et al. 2006; Maharachchikumbura et al. 2016). Hu et al. (2012c) introduced a new species, Togninia aquatica, collected from freshwater habitats. Gramaje et al. (2015) combined this species as Phaeoacremonium aquaticum.
Gramaje D, Mostert L, Groenewald JZ, Crous PW. 2015 – Phaeoacremonium: from esca disease to phaeohyphomycosis. Fungal Biology 119, 759–783.
Maharachchikumbura SSN, Hyde KD, Jones EBG, McKenzie EHC et al. 2016b – Families of Sordariomycetes. Fungal Diversity 79, 1–317.
Mostert L, Groenewald JZ, Summerbell RC, Gams W, Crous PW (2006) Taxonomy and pathology of Togninia (Diaporthales) and its Phaeoacremonium anamorphs. Stud Mycol 54:1–113.
Hu DM, Cai L, Hyde KD (2012c) Three new ascomycetes from freshwater in China. Mycologia 104:1478–1489.